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Lupin
10-13-2008, 6:54 AM
The following diseases and health problems have been covered.

Click the links to proceed quickly to specifics.

Parasitic Infections
Anchorworm (Lernaea elegans) (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657431&postcount=44)
Black Spot Disease (Uvulifer ambloplitis) (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657391&postcount=10)
Body Fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657407&postcount=25)
Camallanus cotti and Camallanus lacustris (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657392&postcount=11)
Capillaria (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657393&postcount=12)
Dactylogyridea (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657388&postcount=7)
Diplostomosis (Diplostomum spathaceum) (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657394&postcount=13)
Ergasilus (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657433&postcount=46)
Fish Leech (Piscicola geometra) (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657430&postcount=43)
Fish Lice (Argulus spp.) (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657432&postcount=45)
Glossatella (Heteropolaria colisarium) (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657408&postcount=26)
Gyrodactylidea (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657387&postcount=6)
Neon Tetra Disease (Pleistophora hyphessobryconis) (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657418&postcount=32)
Whirling Disease (Myxosoma cerebralis) (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657390&postcount=9)
White Spot Disease (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis) (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657382&postcount=2)

Flagellates
Carp Pox (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657406&postcount=24)
Chilodonella (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657411&postcount=28)
Costia (Ichthyobodo necatrix) (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657409&postcount=27)
Glossatella (Heteropolaria colisarium) (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657408&postcount=26)
Tetrahymena (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657413&postcount=29)
Trichodina (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657415&postcount=30)
Velvet Disease (Oodinium spp.) (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657416&postcount=31)

Bacterial and Viral Diseases
Bacterial Fin Rot (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657389&postcount=8)
Bacterial Gill Rot (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657400&postcount=19)
Columnaris (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657384&postcount=3)
Enteric Red Mouth (Yersinia ruckeri) (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657401&postcount=20)
Erythrodermatitis (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657404&postcount=23)
Fish Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium spp.) (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657403&postcount=22)
Hemorrhage Septicemia (Aeromonas hydrophila) (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657402&postcount=21)
Lymphocystis (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657399&postcount=18)

Health Issues, Defects and Deficiencies
Acidosis/Alkalosis (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657428&postcount=41)
Acute Poisoning (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657425&postcount=38)
Air Bubble Disease (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657396&postcount=15)
Body Tumor (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=2112570&postcount=48)
Cloudy Eyes (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657429&postcount=42)
Constant gasping around the surface (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657426&postcount=39)
Constipation (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657421&postcount=35)
Continuous darkening of the whole body (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657423&postcount=37)
Damaged/Pinched Nerves (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657422&postcount=36)
Dropsy of Aquarium Fish (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657386&postcount=5)
Gill Curl (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657398&postcount=17)
Goiter (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657420&postcount=34)
Hole in the Head (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657385&postcount=4)
Insidious Intoxication (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657427&postcount=40)
Osmotic Shock (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657419&postcount=33)
Patchy Disease (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657397&postcount=16)
Swim Bladder Disorder (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1657395&postcount=14)

WARNING!
Please be sure to check the treatment information first and contraindications before proceeding with the treatment course!
http://aquariacentral.com/forums/showthread.php?t=135493

Lupin
10-13-2008, 6:55 AM
White Spot Disease (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis)
Synonyms:
Ich, Ick

Symptoms:
Early signs of white spot begin when fish flick themselves against rocks. They may also swimming in an odd behaviour as if they were trying to use the water to wash away an irritation. Some of the more common causes are stress, bad water conditions, live food that have been infected by the pathogens or already infected fish without quarantining it.

Description:
Ich is a protozoal infection that afflicts fish and can rapidly kill them, most often by damaging gill tissue. It is highly infectious and potentially lethal and manifests as tiny white spots all over the fish. The spots are no larger than grains of salt. The wide host range of this parasite is its life cycle, and speed of multiplication especially in a tropical aquarium. When you see the white spot on your fish, it is already too late for those ich particles to be avoided.

The organisms, trophonts goes through a life cycle of a small white spot feeding on your fish which drops off to the floor of your tank and encases itself in a cyst called tomont. While encased in a cyst, it divides into up to 2000 new mobile organisms called theronts. The cyst then ruptures, thus releasing the theronts which seek out a host to feed into. They must locate a host within 24 hours otherwise they will die. Only the mobile stage is vulnerable to treatments.

Ich will appear if the fish is stressed. Note that it acts more as a 'contaminant' and is not part of the tank's ecosystem. Any new fish should be quarantined for 2-4 weeks. Failing that will increase the risk of introducing diseases which wil affect other occupants. New fish are always possible carriers of diseases.

Treatment:
Salt
Instructions
Increase the temperature to at least 84-86 degrees as much as the fish can tolerate. Add aquarium or table salt (dissolved in water) at a ratio of 1-3 teaspoons of salt per gallon of water in your tank equivalent to 0.1-0.3% depending on the tolerance level of your fish.

For basic procedures, here are the steps.
1. Dose one teaspoon per gallon of salt or equivalent to 0.1%.
2. After 12 hours and assuming the fish has tolerated it very wellso far, repeat step 1.
3. After another 12 hours, repeat step 1 again.

While waiting, it does not hurt to add a powerhead or airstone to increase the oxygen level. Over the first couple days, your fish will appear worse and will eventually recover as the treatment progresses. In most cases, ich will disappear on the sixth day. However, there is still a probability that some cysts have not yet ruptured so it is advisable to keep the treatment up for full ten days.

If you are not able to raise the temperature at all especially if you are dealing with fish that lack tolerance for temperature above 80 degrees Fahrenheit, you may need to extend the treatment although a good general guideline is to continue 7-10 more days of treatment right after the ich had seemingly disappeared.. At 85 degrees Fahrenheit, the life cycle of ich is quicker. The colder the temperature, the slower the life cycle thus the treatment will extend even longer than required.

Level of Tolerance
For bottom dwellers such as plecos and loaches, you may need to maintain the saline solution at 0.1-0.2% so it will not be detrimental to them although there have been few instances where some catfishes can tolerate as much as 0.3%.

Do make sure your fish can tolerate the elevated saline solution. If in doubt, be prepared to do a water change to relieve the fish of the osmotic stress caused by the salt. Try not to lose focus on the actual saline solution you already administered or you might end up overdosing the salt more than it was necessary.

Clown loaches and young oscars are notorious for getting ich after they are transferred to your tank. These and many others can tolerate salt. If you are unsure about your fish’s tolerance for salt, be sure to look for answers in a reference book or ask an expert.

A salt test kit available at your local fish store will help you get the exact dosage. Something in the range of .2%, is where you want to be.

Water Changes vs. Salt
Should a water change be necessary, make sure you redose the salt solution per the water volume replaced.

For example, a 10g needs 30 teaspoons at 3 teaspoons per gallon of water measurement. If you wish to change at least 50% of the water, then another 15 teaspoons of salt should be redosed to keep the saline solution effective against the parasites.

Teaspoon vs. Tablespoon Measurement
For those not familiar with the teaspoon = tablespoon conversion, a leveled heap of tablespoon is equivalent to 3 teaspoons whereas a round heap of tablespoon is equivalent to 5 teaspoons.

In Australian standard, a tablespoon is equivalent to four teaspoons so please adjust the necessary dosage as much as possible.

Plants Goners Or Not?
Unfortunately many plants do not do well with this salt treatment and may appear to wither but will usually come back in time once the salt treatment is over. Removing them to a salt free environment after a thorough rinsing may save them, however they must be kept at a high temperature or for an extended period of time. When the cyst breaks up in the plant holding tank, the small parasites will be unable to find a host and will die within 24-72 hours depending on the environmental conditions. Ich is easily transferred to other fish tanks so do not share nets, heaters and wet hands between infected and non infected tanks.

Mutual Relationship of Bacteria vs. Ich
Abstract explaining the presence of endosymbiotic bacteria within ich and bacteria with mutual relationship towards ich developing its infective capability can be found here.
http://thegab.org/forum/viewtopic.php?f=8&t=20210

Other Treatments:
Malachite Green, Formalin

Do NOT combine formalin and salt.

Check this list for contraindications of the above treatments.
http://monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/showthread.php?t=295289

Authors:
Lupin (http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/member.php?u=14993)
Anythingfish (http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/member.php?u=12)
ChileRelleno (http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/member.php?u=4713)
guppy (http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/member.php?u=283)
SkepticalAquarist.com (http://www.skepticalaquarist.com/)
Tokis-Phoenix (http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/member.php?u=20977)

Discussion Thread:
http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/showthread.php?t=20681

Lupin
10-13-2008, 6:57 AM
Columnaris
Synonyms:
Cotton-wool, Mouth Fungus, Flexibacter, Flexibacter columnaris

Symptoms:
When fish are infected with this pathogen, the following signs can be anticipated:

Skin
There will be necrotic lesions on the skin, which often are white/gray coloured with an edging of red. These will quickly in one to two days, transform into ulcers with have an orange/yellow colour, caused by the bacteria decaying the underlying tissue.

Gills
Similar effects very typically occur on the gills, but may for the average hobbyist be somewhat harder to observe at least in the early stages. The progression of these ulcers, causes the fish to have great trouble with its respiration, and thus can quickly lead to fatalities. If the gills are examined, excessive amounts of mucous, are to be expected.

Behaviour
The fish will become very listless and lethargic, often will hang at the surface, trying to breath there, although on occasion, the fish will rest on the bottom of the tank. Reluctance to feed is very typical and the fish will become anorexic. Respiration is often rapid, as the fish fights to overcome the damage done by the infection to its gills.

Body
In some cases, the lips of the fish will become swollen and macerated, and a milky slime like film can be observed with the naked eye on parts of the body.

Fins
Large milky patches can be seen quite easily on the fins of the fish, and this is usually an indication that the disease has progressed to a degree that cure will become much more difficult. One typical sign is the appearance of a saddle-shaped lesion usually around the area of the dorsal fin, and this occurs so often, that the name 'saddle back disease' is often used in aquaculture to describe this infection.

Description:
This is bacterial infection which is very common in the aquaria and is very contagious especially in stressful conditions including undercleaned, overcrowded environment. Immediate action is needed to contain it before it spreads to other fish.

Cannibalism of infected carcass of fish will always encourage progress of columnaris transmission to other fish. It is advisable to remove the dead infected fish immediately.

Treatment:
According to Oddball (http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/member.php?u=436), this has worked for him on freshwater and brackish water fish.
1. Terramycin and Trypaflavin
a. Pull carbon.
b. Gravel wash and water change to reduce pathogen population.
c. Terramycin bath.
d. Add salt to the water to aid gill functions.
e. Treat food with Terramycin to fight internal infection.
f. Treat tank with chloramphenicol + acriflavin (trypaflavin) per dosage on container.
g. Gravel washes/water changes every other day. Replace salt and meds.
h. Treat for an additional 10 days after symptoms are no longer present.

2. Ophthalmic Ointment
Wipe it onto the affected areas of the fish (instead of dipping the fish in a bath).

3. Medicated Foods
Foods (dry/frozen/fresh) can be treated with medications to target internal infections in a fish. The meds (usually liquid but, can be powder) are added to regular foods (per med instructions). For a disease, such as columnaris, internal medication is important since the disease can cause gill damage/necrosis.

The combination of Maracyn and Maracyn 2 (erythromycin and minocycline respectively), kanaplex and tetracycline can be used as well as alternatives. They can be incorporated in gel foods.

Continue reading on this page for recommended amount per the amount of gel food reserves.
http://thegab.org/Articles/MedicatedGelFood.html

4. Sera Baktopur and Sera Baktopur Direct
1. Add 22 drops/1 ml per 5 gallons of Sera Baktopur in your tank.
2. Add a tablet of Sera Baktopur Direct. One tablet per 20 gallons is the dosage.
Note that #1 and #2 should be done on the odd number of days. First day, third day, fifth day and so on.
3. Do a 10% water change on the second day.
4. Repeat #1 and #2 on third day. The dosage has to be done according to how many gallons of water you replaced. Water changes should be done on even number of days.

Warning:
The combination of Sera Baktopur and Sera Baktopur Direct will harm your biological filtration.

Authors:
Lupin (http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/member.php?u=14993)
Oddball (http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/member.php?u=436)
Tokis-Phoenix (http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/member.php?u=20977)

Discussion Threads:
http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/showthread.php?t=21286
http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/showthread.php?t=31362

http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/attachment.php?attachmentid=35235&stc=1&d=1151726344

Lupin
10-13-2008, 6:58 AM
Hole in the Head
Synonyms:
Head and Lateral Line Erosion

(1)Water Quality
Get your water quality/chemistry perfect, NH3-0, NO2-0, NO3- 0/20ppm,
check your filters & clean'em if necessary (reduces alot of NO3), gravel vac & PWC, do small PWC's (25%) every other day.
Just about everyone will agree that bad water chemistry and HITH go together like apple pie -n- ice cream...

(2)Diet
Feed a well balanced and varied diet* (See below).

(3)Vitamin Supplements
Add liquid vitamin supplements to all food and vary their diet.
Soak or load everything you feed the fish with vitamins until cured and watch your water.
Vitamins that you add to your tanks water are worthless (IMO).
We use "Vita Chem", our fish get it regularly.
This particular brand is available at most on-line retailers and at better LFS's (We get ours at BigAls).
http://www.bigalsonline.com/catalog/...d1=2911;pcid2=

(4) Supplementary treatment
I would add a dose of salt to the tank, this encourages slime-coat production and gill function amongst other things.
Also a dose of Melafix and Pimafix, these have been known to help healing and prevent secondary infection.

(5)Temperature
Gradually increase your tanks temp to aprox 80'-82'f.
Increased temp increases metabolism which can influence the immune system thus possibly speed healing.

(6)Medicate
Alot of folks blame Hexamita for HITH and thus treat for it with medications, BUT, studies have been done showing that Hex (and others) is/are a secondary infection/s (Whether or not Hexamita plays a key-role with HITH infections is controversial).
You need to do what "You" feel is right and correct after researching this for yourself, google "HITH causes prevention and cure" or some such, and visit Cichlid specific forums for more info.

Some folks also think that filter carbon dust plays a role...
Carbons role is controversial.

Some folks also think that stray electrical currents are to blame...
Stray electrical currents role is controversial at best.

It seems there are no absolutes as to the cause, but just like ICH there are many ways to treat it and proponenets/opponents of each treatment.

I say again though...
Perfect water quality and a varied nutritious diet supplemented with vitamins.

Here's a good article on HITH available here at Oscarfish,
http://www.oscarfish.com/cms_view_article.php?aid=3
For more simply Google, 'HITH'.

DIET
A quality cichlid pellet or stick should make up 75-80% of your O's diet.
These are my primary foods...
Pellets, Carnivore sticks, freezedried krill, algae wafers, fresh nightcrawlers, fresh/freezedried earthworm (Any worms are great foods!), fresh crickets, fresh mealworms, almost any insect I catch (Insects from outside do pose a risk of insecticides which can harm your fish, be careful.).

I rotate store bought nightcrawlers, crickets and mealworms about monthly on the menu.
I feed my 10"+ O probably 4-6 large crickets, 6-10 mealworms or 1-2 large nightcrawlers per feeding and he'll get'em every 2-3 days.

I feed or have fed my O all of these foods...
Raw/cooked shrimp, small bits of raw cut fish, beefheart, bitesize bits of fruits-n-veggies (zucchini, carrot, shelled peas, shelled corn, apple, orange, pear, papya and etc...), small tree/grass frogs (NO toads, and know which frog species your feeding as some can be toxic too.) and properly quarantined or raised feeder fish, these should be fed sparingly and rotated as snacks or dessert.
Do not feed unquarantined feeder fish from LFS/LPS, do not feed mammalian flesh (Animal fats from mammals and fowl are very bad for most fish).

I supplement his nutrition by soaking his pellets 4-5 times a week in a liquid vitamin.
I use Vita-Chem, available at some LFS's and on-line retailers, I get mine at BigAl's, http://www.bigalsonline.com/BigAlsUS...mfreshwater4oz
Alot of different types and brands are used, Liquid Centrum for example, but you could reasonably use any quality L. vitamin.

Authors:
ChileRelleno (http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/member.php?u=4713)

Discussion Thread:
http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/fo...ad.php?t=21851 (http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/showthread.php?t=21851)

Lupin
10-13-2008, 6:58 AM
Dropsy of Aquarium Fish
Synonyms:
Bloat, Malawi Bloat

Symptoms:
Protrusion of scales, distended abdomen, pop-eye

Not all symptoms however will appear at the same time. It must be noted there are various causes of this issue so steps must be taken that the issue is properly diagnosed in order to rectify the actual cause of this issue.

Description:
The problem with this issue is that there are a number of "potential" causes therefore making it very difficult to determine the appropriate steps to be taken to correct the issue.

Care must be taken in diagnosing the actual issue. Usually, a necropsy (post mortem examination) is the best route to enable you to correct the issue before your other fish may end up getting victimized by this issue.

The following so far are known causes of this issue:
1. Internal parasites
The presence of some internal parasites in the abdominal area of the fish and possibly allowing the harmful bacteria to infiltrate the blood vessels can cause quite a lot of damage on the tissues and subsequently kill the fish.

2. Cancerous tumors
3. Excessive protein intake (especially with lack of fiber thereof)
4. Viral infections
5. Internal bacterial infections, usually a resulting secondary infection from external parasites

Aeromonas hydrophila, Flavobacterium columnare and Pseudomonas sp. are often responsible for this issue. This happens mainly after a primary issue was able to take its toll on the fish. Resolve the primary issue first, usually parasitic, before this resulting secondary infection.

If the cause is bacterial, the swelling typically comes on pretty rapidly. If swelling is gradual then one or more of the other potential causes are more likely. Unfortunately, treatment is most often useless at this point due to the advanced state of the disease process. When the illness, whatever the cause, has progressed far enough to cause internal swelling, the concomitant internal damage is usually too extensive to be repairable.

6. Infrequent water changes or sudden temperature drop
7. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD for short; resulting renal damage especially by a parasite, Hoferellus carassii which commonly affects goldfish but not koi)

For further information, please see this. Be warned that the topic contains graphic images of fish examined by necropsy after it passed away from polycystic kidney damage.
http://thegab.org/forum/viewtopic.php?f=8&t=20356&p=274596#p274596

8. Accumulating organic matter (nice breeding ground for parasites especially the parasite HC mentioned above)

Treatment:
Romet B
The latest research has shown that if the disease cause is bacterial and if the disease process is caught early enough, treatment with Romet B, a broad spectrum antibacterial, may be effective when used concurrent with an increase in water temperature to 84-86F for 2 weeks minimum.

BE CERTAIN to maintain HIGH OXYGEN LEVELS during such treatment since at these temperatures, water holds significantly less oxygen at these higher water temperatures. One of the suspected bacterial precursors to the disease process -- Aeromonas, is killed at these temperatures.

Erythromycin
Feeding foods soaked in ERYTHROMYCIN will kill the second suspected bacteria, Mycobacterium. In rare cases popeye has been found to be caused by Edwardsiella etarda. This is found only in fish that have been bred in outdoor ponds -- the functional bacteria in this case is carried by frogs. While fair to good results in treatment have been found by feeding Romet B., even better results have been found using injectable chloramphenicol or amakacin. This is best done by your veterinarian.

If parasites are a known cause, treat for them first for 3 days increasing the temperature to 86F as fast as possible.

Epsom Salt
Concurrently add 1/8 teaspoon of EPSOM SALT -- per 5 gallons of water or 1/4 teaspoon per 10g. Epsom salt may help reduce the internal pressure caused by the swelling. Extremely good aeration is necessary here due to the use of such high temperatures.

Metronidazole
Experienced Directions by Oddball
1. Remove carbon/resins from filter.
2. Perform a 30-50% water change (reduces free-floating bacteria population)
3. Add salt (teaspoon to a tablespoon per gallon) to aid the fish's osmotic regulation processes.
4. Treat with 250mg/20gallons of Metronidazole (Flagyl)
5. Leave for 3 days and do not feed.
6. After 3 days, perform another large water change.
7. Replace the salt.
8. Add full dosage of Metronidazole.
9. Wait another 3 days. During this phase, the bloat should be decreasing in appearance. In large fish, the water may take on an ammonia odor from the high volume of urea the fish should now be producing due to reducing the bloat and recovering renal activity.
10. 3rd day, another water change. Also, replace the salt and redose the metronidazole (full dose). If the fish looks to be well on the road to recovery you can offer a small feeding each day.
11. Another water change on the 3rd day. No meds but, I'd recommend the salt. You should be clear now.

This is the treatment I use on my africans, puffers, and my lungfishes/polypteridae. Knock on wood that it's worked every single time.

Feeding Metronidazole
Recommended dosage when combined with foods is 250mg of metronidazole per 25g of foods. Best mixed with gel foods.

Aside from the above mentioned metronidazole, it is recommended that sodium chloride be added. For further information on how to administer salt, please check here (http://monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/showpost.php?p=2138158&postcount=2).

Other Treatments:
Oxolinic acid, injectable antibiotics such as Baytril and Fortaz

For injectable antibiotics, instructions of how to inject antibiotics can be found here.
http://thegab.org/Illness-and-Treatment/giving-your-goldfish-an-injection.html

Do NOT use kanamycin and other aminoglycosides as these are quite toxic to fish suffering from suspected renal damage.

Authors:
Lupin (http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/member.php?u=14993)
Oddball (http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/member.php?u=436)
Tokis-Phoenix (http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/member.php?u=20977)


Discussion Thread:
http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/showthread.php?t=45617

Lupin
10-13-2008, 6:59 AM
Gyrodactylidea
Symptoms:
Rubbing movements, overproduction of mucous membrane, listlessness around the surface, rapid breathing due to stress

Causes:
The livebearing flukes, Gyrodactylidea are responsible for the erratic behavior of the fish which will eventually be overcome by the stress. Gyrodactylidea is found more often in the ponds rather than the aquaria but they can be transported to the aquaria too if the infested pond fish is introduced. They prefer colder temperatures and are much less common in warm water aquaria.

Some species can reach 3 mm and can be seen with the naked eye if closely watched.

The flukes hook themselves to the fish's tissues severely damaging it and at this stage, the fish begins to rub itself around the aquarium. The flukes must be eliminated immediately as soon as you detect them.

Treatment:
1. Formalin (It has been noted that this is not very effective against the eradication of fluke eggs.

2. Potassium Permanganate

3. Flubendazole-Noted to be very effective against the fluke eggs.

4. Praziquantel
It can be bought as Prazipro available in online sites or petstores or Droncit in veterinary clinics.

5. Salt dips

6. Sera Mycopur

7. Sera Ectopur

8. Trichlorfon

9. Chloramine T

http://img365.imageshack.us/img365/2158/gyrodactylideazx9.th.png (http://img365.imageshack.us/my.php?image=gyrodactylideazx9.png)

Lupin
10-13-2008, 6:59 AM
Dactylogyridea
Symptoms:
Rubbing movements, rapid breathing, one gill is usually shut while using the other

Causes:
Poor water quality, stress and overpopulation will allow the gill flukes to reproduce quickly and the fish soon begins to rub over objects. If they are heavily infested, then they will stand under the surface breathing heavily. Adult fish usually can tolerate minor infestations but if infested heavily or severely stressed, they will eventually succumb to the gill flukes.

Dactylogyridea is an egg-laying gill fluke that is just the opposite of the Gyrodactylidea. They live mainly in the gills and can be visible with the naked eye as they reach 2-3 mm. Eggs fall to the bottom of the aquarium or vat. The fluke after it hatches eventually finds a host where it can attach itself.

Gill flukes have hooks that they use to attach themselves on the mucous membranes of the skin and gills of the fish thus injuring them. As a result, secondary infections such as fungi, protozoans and bacteria will appear and start to overtake the fish. Treatment must be done immediately to stop this situation from getting to the worse.

Treatment:
1. Formalin (It has been noted that this is not very effective against the eradication of fluke eggs.

2. Potassium Permanganate

3. Flubendazole-Noted to be very effective against the fluke eggs.

4. Praziquantel
It can be bought as Prazipro available in online sites or petstores or Droncit in veterinary clinics.

5. Salt dips

6. Sera Mycopur

7. Sera Ectopur

8. Trichlorfon

9. Chloramine T

Lupin
10-13-2008, 6:59 AM
Bacterial Fin Rot
Symptoms:
The fins are frayed and getting shorter. Edges are whitish.

Causes:
Overpopulation, severe stress especially on transit, untreated injuries, poor water quality and poor maintenance are the main causes of fin rot. Fin rot can occur in connection with columnaris, fungal overgrowths, lesions and as a secondary infection to parasite infestations. Fish begins to have difficulty swimming due to the damaged fins.

Treatment:
Broad spectrum antibiotics, frequent water changes are a must to improve water quality

http://img205.imageshack.us/img205/3815/finrotig8.th.png (http://img205.imageshack.us/my.php?image=finrotig8.png)
Picture retrieved from O-fish.com (http://www.o-fish.com/) for reference purposes.

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:00 AM
Whirling Disease (Myxosoma cerebralis)
Symptoms:
Clinically fish become deformed about the head and spine with the fish swimming erratically (whirling). Histologically there is necrosis of the cartilage with numerous spores present in the area of inflammation. The necrosis of the cartilage is the cause of the deformation.

Causes:
Myxosporidean parasite with a 10 micron oval spore with 2 piriform polar capsules. Parasite affects primarily young salmonids (rainbow trout most susceptible).

Transmission is believed to be by ingestion of spores. The life cycle of this organism is not completely known (believed to be indirect since myxobolus spores do not directly infect the fish) however, there appears to be a tubeficid oligochaetes (tubifex mud worm) as an important intermediate or transport host. It is believed that the parasite undergoes sporulation in the tubiflex worm were the organism takes on the form of a Triactinomyxon sp. It is believed that this parasite is then released from the tubifex worm and infects the trout. (ingestion of infected tubifex worms may also cause the fish to become infected)

Morphology
All information retrieved from Wikipedia for reference and archival purposes.

Triactinomyxon stage
The stages that infect fish, called triactinomyxon spores, are made of a single style that is about 150 micrometers (m) long and three processes or "tails" that are each about 200 micrometers long. A sporoplasm packet at the end of the style contains 64 germ cells surrounded by a cellular envelope. There are also three polar capsules, each of which contains a coiled polar filament between 170 and 180 m long. Polar filaments in both this stage and in the myxospore stage (see picture above) rapidly shoot into the body of the host, creating an opening through which the sporoplasm can enter.

Sporoplasm stage
Upon contact with fish hosts and firing of the polar capsules, the sporoplasm contained within the central style of the triactinomyxon migrates into the epithelium or gut lining. Firstly, this sporoplasm undergoes mitosis to produce more amoeboid cells, which migrate into deeper tissue layers, in order to reach the cerebral cartilage.

Myxosporean stage
Myxospores, which develop from sporogonic cell stages inside fish hosts, are lenticular. They have a diameter of about 10 micrometers and are made of six cells. Two of these cells form polar capsules, two merge to form a binucleate sporoplasm, and two form protective valves. Myxospores are infective to oligochaetes, and are found among the remains of digested fish cartilage. They are often difficult to distinguish from related species because of morphological similarities across genera. Though M. cerebralis is the only myxosporean ever found in salmonid cartilage, other visually similar species may be present in the skin, nervous system, or muscle.

Life cycle
Myxobolus cerebralis has a two-host life-cycle involving a salmonid fish and a tubificid oligochaete. So far, the only worm known to be susceptible to M. cerebralis infection is Tubifex tubifex, though what scientists currently call T. tubifex may in fact be more than one species. First, myxospores are ingested by tubificid worms. In the gut lumen of the worm, the spores extrude their polar capsules and attach to the gut epithelium by polar filaments. The shell valves then open along the suture line and the binucleate germ cell penetrates between the intestinal epithelial cells of the worm. This cell multiplies, producing many amoeboid cells by an asexual cell fission process called merogony. As a result of the multiplication process, the intercellular space of the epithelial cells in more than 10 neighbouring worm segments may become infected.

Around 60–90 days post-infection, sexual cell stages of the parasite undergo sporogenesis, and develop into pansporocysts, each of which contains eight triactinomyxon-stage spores. These spores are released from the oligochaete anus into the water. Alternatively, a fish can become infected by eating an infected oligochaete. Infected tubificids can release triactinomyxons for at least 1 year.The triactinomyxon spores swim through the water to infect a salmonid through the skin. Penetration of the fish by these spores takes only a few seconds. Within five minutes, a sac of germ cells called a sporoplasm has entered the fish epidermis, and within a few hours, the sporoplasm splits into individual cells that will spread through the fish.

Within the fish, there are both intracellular and extracellular stages that reproduce in its cartilage by asexual endogeny, meaning that new cells grow from within old cells. The final stage within fish is the myxospore, which is formed by sporogony. They are released into the environment when the fish decomposes or is eaten. Some recent research indicates that some fish may expel viable myxospores while still alive.

Myxospores are extremely tough: "it was shown that Myxobolus cerebralis spores can tolerate freezing at ­-20C for at least 3 months, aging in mud at 13C for at least 5 months, and passage through the guts of northern pike Esox lucius or mallards Anas platyrhynchos without loss of infectivity" to worms. Triactinomyxons are much shorter lived, surviving 34 days or less, depending on temperature.

Treatment:
Some drugs such as furazolidone, furoxone, benomyl, fumagillin, proguanil and clamoxyquine have been shown to impede spore development, which reduces infection rates. For example, one study showed that feeding Fumagillin to Oncorhynchus mykiss reduced the number of infected fish from between 73% and 100% to between 10% and 20%. Unfortunately, this treatment is considered unsuitable for wild trout populations, and no drug treatment has ever been shown to be effective in the studies required for United States Food and Drug Administration approval.

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:01 AM
Black Spot Disease (Uvulifer ambloplitis)
Symptoms:
Clinically the fish have numerous black to brown spots up to 1 mm (dia) over the skin, gills and eyes. The spots contain a metacercaria surrounded by heavily pigmented fibrous connective tissue.

Causes:
Introduction of herons and kingfishers which are the definitive host, snails are the first intermediate host. Fish are the second intermediate host.

Black Spot Disease is more common in ponds compared to the aquaria.

Life cycle:


• Adults found in intestine of kingfishers.
• Unembryonated eggs are shed in water -->> hatch in 3 weeks -->> miracidium emerges.
• Miracidium penetrates snail Helisoma trivolvis (ramshorn snail) -->> mother sporocyst -->> daughter sporocyst -->> furcocercous cercaria are released.
• Cercaria penetrates skin of host and transforms into neascus metacercaria, where there is a strong tissue reaction -->> black spot
• Fish then eaten by bird -->> metacercariae excysts -->> adult in intestine.
Treatment:
Frequent water changes are recommended.

Pathology
1. Strong tissue reaction due to mobilization of fibrocytes and melanocytes to create black spot.

2. If reaction is strong enough, total body fat of fish will be driven below 5%.

3. If fish enters winter in this condition, it will not survive because fish does not feed in winter and does not have enough fat reserves to over winter.

4. At least 50 cysts are necessary to cause mortality.

5. At least 10-20% of fish will die each winter.

6. Because of parasite overdispersion, 70-80% of the parasites the pond will also be eliminated in winter.

http://img237.imageshack.us/img237/858/blackspotdiseasezz7.th.png (http://img237.imageshack.us/my.php?image=blackspotdiseasezz7.png)

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:01 AM
Camallanus cotti and Camallanus lacustris
Symptoms:
Red worms protruding on the fish's anus, inflammation in the vent area, whitish slimy feces

Causes:
Camallanus worms can be found protruding out of the fish's anus. They are actually transparent but gained the reddish tint which is actually their victims' blood. Female camallanus worms are over a centimeter in length whereas males are about a third fraction of the females' size.

According to The Skeptical Artist website, most species of Camallanus and its close kin shed eggs, and their life cycle needs an intermediate host, often a copepod or perhaps a cladoceran (such as daphnia); their reproduction gets disrupted in the aquarium, though copepods are everywhere, especially in planted tanks. But C. cotti and the less-common C. lacustris are viviparous: their larvae develop within the adult female worm who sheds them into the water; several successive generations can infect aquarium fish.

The young worms are as likely to be eaten by a copepod as by another fish, but either way they get passed to the next fish host. In the severest cases maybe the best thing you can do is net out the sufferer, gently euthanise it, and concentrate on the other fishes that are infested but not so far gone. Don't try to net the fish and pull off the worms with a tweezer; they are deeply embedded and you'll just tear the intestine wall. Parasitic nematodes weaken the host; what kills it usually are secondary infections.

In retrospect, you may realize that the victim had been showing some inflammation in the vent area and might have been passing whitish, mucusy feces. Too often we let symptoms like these pass unnoticed.

In the wild most fish harbor some parasitic nematodes. Fish populations are diffuse enough that the chances of a nematode egg being successfully transfered are low, and besides, a healthy fish can usually live with the normal range of its familiar co-evolved parasites, just as many humans harbor Giardia without suffering significant ill effects. However, when fish are caught and transported to exporters, then flown from wholesaler to wholesaler, shipped to retailers and at last to hobbyists, they have been put through enormous stresses. To a fish with stress-impaired resistance, even a modestly benign and familiar parasite may become serious. How much more lethal, then, is an alien parasite that has not had time to "learn" not to damage its host.

Camallanus cotti was first described in Japan in 1927, but has been distributed throughout the world, largely from the fish farms of Singapore and Malaysia, especially after 1980.

Treatment:
Levamisole hydrochloride (effective as anti-worming agent), flubendazole, fenbendazole, fresh garlic extracts

http://img401.imageshack.us/img401/7420/camallanusworms1fn3.th.png (http://img401.imageshack.us/my.php?image=camallanusworms1fn3.png)


Notice the worms protruding on the fish's anus.
http://img174.imageshack.us/img174/5710/camallanusworms3ok0.th.png (http://img174.imageshack.us/my.php?image=camallanusworms3ok0.png)

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:02 AM
Capillaria
Symptoms:
Loss of weight/anorexia, slowing down of growth, malnutrition, whitish and stringy feces, dark coloration

Causes:
Fish can get them when they eat the eggs of the worms and even in contact with feces of infected individuals. Crustaceans and copepods serve as intermediate hosts and may be eaten by the fish in the wild thus infecting the fish itself as well.

Treatment:
Piperazine, mebendazole, albendazole, levamisole hydrochloride, trichlorfon

Another treatment by Drs. Foster and Smith recommended against nematodes
http://www.drsfostersmith.com/Produc...&N=2004+113521 (http://www.drsfostersmith.com/Product/Prod_Display.cfm?pcatid=4760&N=2004+113521)

Capillaria egg
http://img409.imageshack.us/img409/7006/capeggmg7.th.jpg (http://img409.imageshack.us/my.php?image=capeggmg7.jpg)

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:02 AM
Diplostomosis (Diplostomum spathaceum)
Symptoms:
Cataract, lesions on the gills, body surface and fins, (in newly-infected fish) petechia and exophthalmia, small white opacities in the lens, dark coloration and loss of condition

Description:
Very wide host range: recorded in more than 150 species of freshwater and brackish water species. Some of the economically important fish species in which the parasite has been recorded include: cod (Gadus morhua), flounder (Platichthys flesus), and salmonids of the genera Salmo, Oncorhynchus, and Coregonus.

The life cycle involves pulmonate snails as first intermediate hosts, fish as second intermediate hosts, and piscivorous birds as final intermediate hosts harbouring the adult worms.

http://img210.imageshack.us/img210/4351/diplostomumspathaceumliov5.th.png (http://img210.imageshack.us/my.php?image=diplostomumspathaceumliov5.png)

Fish are infected with cercariae. Body length of cercariae is 160-260 m and the bifurcated tail stem is as long as the body. The area around the mouth and the body is equipped with hooks and spines in a regular pattern. On penetration of the fish, the tail is shed. During its migratory route to the lens, the parasites gradually undergo further change. The established metacercariae are flattened, about 400 m in length, and possess two suckers and an attachment organ (tribocytic organ).

Infection takes place in areas where the various hosts occur together, i.e. in fresh and brackish standing inshore water. Shedding of the cercariae is associated with a rise in water temperature and normally continues from late spring to early autumn.

On another note, this will not happen in the aquaria without other various hosts.

Treatment:
Praziquantel

http://img210.imageshack.us/img210/5118/diplostomumspathaceum1xl5.th.png (http://img210.imageshack.us/my.php?image=diplostomumspathaceum1xl5.png)

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:02 AM
Swim Bladder Disorder
Symptoms:
Limited signs of bloat though usually no physical damage is found, fish struggles to balance itself sometimes going “belly up” due to lack of proper buoyancy

Causes:
Often indigestion with goldfish, blood parrot cichlid and “balloon” strains becoming more vulnerable to the disorder rather than most fish species, bacterial infections, damaged swim bladder, the use of floating foods which when ingested allows entry of air to the digestive system, congenital or development causes, birth defect, sudden trauma from sudden changes in water conditions or failure to acclimate the fish properly.

Causes can be difficult to determine although possible causes are often leaned on the use of floating foods, indigestion and damaged organs by assumption. Genetics also play a role in this issue. It has long been argued that floating foods should never be used at all especially for goldfish. It is in the best interest of the safety of the fish that sinking foods be used instead of floating foods or try to squish the foods until they sink.

Updated version: The ongoing debate regarding the use of floating foods has been stretched further that the use of foods that primarily composed of starch-based ingredients has been pointed out. After further analysis by those who keep goldfish, it was found that the bacteria lining the digestive systems are also one of the culprits contributing to buoyancy issues. Although the goldfish has no enzymes to digest the starch, the bacteria make up for the lack of enzymes but in return, produce gas which when trapped in the GI tract, can cause buoyancy issues. Most fish get "floaty" despite the switching of food products from floating to sinking and this can easily be pointed to the starch ingredients found in the food.


Treatment:
1. High fiber diet and fasting.
Switch to foods with high fiber content. In this case, most fish fail to expel wastes due to the foods clogging the digestive system especially with air trapped inside. Fasting for a few days or weeks also helps dislodge the foods from the GI tract.

2. Antibiotics
This one is very tricky. There is no telling how the fish became "floaty" and it could be bacteria or virus causing the issue if the food diet is not an issue. Administer only if you are sure this is the issue. A lot of viral infections are resistant to treatments and in this case, the fish may need to be destroyed.

3. Gel Foods and Acidophilus
It has already been pointed out in most cases starch is the common cause of buoyancy issues with goldfish. Despite it being digested by the bacteria, the bacteria also produce gas and while this is not an issue with streamline bodied fish, most fish have a rather compressed GI tract where the air is easily trapped. The use of Lactobacilli acidophilus through incorporating it in gel foods help quell the gas trapped in the GI tract. It is likewise recommended that starch based foods be avoided completely and switch to other foods that do not contain starch such as yeast, corn, etc.

Unfortunately, there is no cure for most cases where this disorder is involved although in some cases, the fish can recover depending on the cause of the disorder. Fish that suffer from this disorder due to sudden trauma from improper acclimation usually will never recover at all. In this case, it is recommended to destroy the fish.

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:03 AM
Air Bubble Disease
Symptoms:
Clear small blisters under the skin (0.5-2 mm)

Causes:
Oversaturation of the water with nitrogen gas.

Treatment:
Aerate the water very well.

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:03 AM
Patchy Disease
Symptoms:
As this seems to affect hillstream loaches more than any other fish species, it must be noted that the affected hillstream loaches usually have abnormally pale patches around their body. They may lose appetite as the disease progresses. Rapid breathing is also noticeable.

Causes:
Introduction via unquarantined fish.

Treatment:
Maracyn I and Maracyn II-Follow dosage as instructed.

More information can be found here (http://www.loaches.com/disease-treatment/disease-treatments-for-hillstream-loaches).

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:03 AM
Gill Curl
Symptoms:
Gill covers curl thus revealing the inner parts of the gills.

Causes:
Poor water quality is often the leading cause although some fish may inherit such gill deformation.

Treatments:
There is no cure for this. Sometimes it can become a permanent damage although water changes in a few cases have been known to rectify the problem. Fish is not affected however by this defect. It is not advisable to trim the gills as this may only endanger the life of the fish.

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:04 AM
Lymphocystis
Synonyms:
Cauliflower Disease

Symptoms:
Lethargy, firm globular cysts on the skin which when stroked with a finger feels hard and does not come off, imbalanced swimming position if cysts are located near the lateral line, bacterial infections appear as secondary infection in the later stages eventually killing the fish

Causes:
Viral infection that infests the fish and changes the cells of the mucous membrane. They rapidly increase in size thus allowing them to be seen even with a naked eye. Cells expand at a diameter of 1 mm and takes on the appearance of a cauliflower hence the name "Cauliflower Disease".

The cells continue to grow and eventually explode releasing a million viruses that float into the water and eventually infecting more fish. The disease usually starts around the fin edges and eventually to the base and other parts of the body.

Dyed fish are very vulnerable to this disease as their epidermis has been damaged from being subjected to dyeing processes.

Treatment:
There is no known cure for this disease. It has been suggested however that the afflicted parts can be surgically removed. If spotted in time, the edges of the fins must be cut away with a sharp scissors noting that the disease itself usually starts at the edges of the fins. Treat the fins with medications prescribed to prevent pathogens from infecting them.

http://img443.imageshack.us/img443/5382/lymphocystisyn1.th.png (http://img443.imageshack.us/my.php?image=lymphocystisyn1.png)

Authors:
Sera guide: How to Keep Your Ornamental Fish Healthy, Dieter Untergasser

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:04 AM
Bacterial Gill Rot
Symptoms:
Gill areas become white or gray, gill filaments fall off and decompose

Causes:
Ammonia intoxication, alkalosis, parasites that damage the sensitive mucous membrane of the gills

Treatment:
Know your water parameters. What exactly are your ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and pH? Frequent water changes are necessary to improve water quality. Very high pH can also be one of the main causes along with very poor water conditions and high organic loads.

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:04 AM
Enteric Red Mouth (Yersinia ruckeri)
Symptoms:
Red mouth and hemorrhages on the belly, lethargy, lack of appetite, infection in the kidney, liver and spleen

Causes:
The disease is caused by the motile, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium identified as Yersinia ruckeri. This disease can readily be transmitted by contact or water. Fortunately, this disease is very rare.

Salmonids, goldfish, cisco, largemouth bass, emerald shiners, sturgeon, fathead minnows, walleye, crayfish and muskrats have been found to be infected with ERM in the past based on researches.

Treatment:
Sulfamerazine, Terramycin, Oxytetracycline

Note: None of the drugs used in the past against ERM has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use on food fish

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:05 AM
Hemorrhage Septicemia (Aeromonas hydrophila)
Symptoms:
Bright red streaks on fins (caused by vascular inflammation due to systemic/bloodborne bacterial infection), patchy red discoloration around the body, pop-eye, protrusion of scales, distended abdomen, rapid breathing

Causes:
Gram negative motile rod bacteria. It is usually associated with poor water quality, stress and overpopulation. Transmission is done by contamination of water with diseased fish.

Treatment:
Broad spectrum antibiotics. Frequent water changes are necessary to improve water quality and allowing recovery of fish.

http://img208.imageshack.us/img208/2804/septicemiazb2.th.png (http://img208.imageshack.us/my.php?image=septicemiazb2.png)

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:05 AM
Fish Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium spp.)
Symptoms:
Emaciation, inflammation of the skin, exophthalmia (Pop-eye), ascites (Dropsy), open lesions, ulceration, sluggishness, bloated abdomen, fin rot, scale loss, skin discoloration, bent spines

Granulomas can be observed in vital organs when a necropsy is performed on the affected fish.

Causes:
Various pathogens. Positive diagnosis not possible outside the laboratory and microscopy.

According to Adrian Tappin, there are several species of Mycobacteriosis species found during further analysis of 42 samples taken from a home aquaria: Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. flavescens, M. chelonae, M. gordonae, M. terrae, M. triviale, M. diernhoferi, M. celatum, M. kansasii and M. intracellulare.

Under pathology examination, these bacteria are often found in apparently healthy rainbowfishes. Young rainbowfishes infected with mycobacteria often show no external signs. As they grow, the infection becomes more serious. However, once present in an aquarium, a 100% infection rate of the population is conceivable.

Treatment:
There is no known treatment against this disease. Destroy all afflicted fish and disinfect the whole aquarium.

More information can be found in Adrian Tappin's website "Home of the Rainbowfish" (http://www.members.optushome.com.au/chelmon/Myco.htm).

Further information on all types of freshwater fish (not just goldfish) can be found here.
Mycobacterium in goldfish (http://thegab.org/forum/viewtopic.php?f=8&t=12679)

Warning:
This can be transmitted as zoonosis called "fish tank granuloma" on hands with open wounds. Use gloves if reaching the tank with suspect animals.

Check this article by Dr. Barb (http://www.flippersandfins.net/FishTankGranuloma.htm) for more details regarding the "fish tank granuloma".

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:06 AM
Erythrodermatitis
Synonyms:
Red Sore Disease

Symptoms:
Lethargic, anorexic, emaciated, heavily ulcerated with bloody red sores

Causes:
Poor environment conditions can encourage bacteria of the Aeromonas genus to proliferate and infect fish. The bacteria itself is responsible for other bacterial diseases such as fin rot.

Erythrodermatitis for carps occur during summer and autumn. The disease takes a slow course. At first, the fish may appear to have a healthy impression but red stains appear in the next few weeks turning into ulcers that break open and the fish soon afterwards die with large open sores on the skin.

This disease has been confused with spring virosis as it appears as red stains the early stages. It can be assumed that this disease can be transmitted by blood-sucking parasites, a similar case that occurs with the spring virosis.

Treatment:
Terramycin, Romet-30, Sera Cyprinopur

http://img523.imageshack.us/img523/8128/erythrodermatitiszg1.th.png (http://img523.imageshack.us/my.php?image=erythrodermatitiszg1.png)

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:06 AM
Carp Pox
Symptoms:
Round or oval-shaped pale or pink elevations measuring from 5-10 mm appearing on the body surface of the affected fish

Causes:
Cold temperature can bring about the carp pox which is not a real pox but a herpes disease, which is not transmitted to humans.

Treatment:
In some cases, it has been known to return on winter season or when the temperature becomes cold and eventually disappears as the warm weather comes noting that this disease is caused by a coldwater virus. The fish, however, do not appear to be suffering very much from the infection even when heavily infested hence they will not die from the carp pox. They gradually recover when kept under the optimum conditions.

The disease is, however still a remnant of the organism and will break out every time the fish becomes weakened especially during the spring.

Acriflavine can also be used to treat for carp pox.

http://img252.imageshack.us/img252/6765/carppoxhu3.th.png (http://img252.imageshack.us/my.php?image=carppoxhu3.png)

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:06 AM
Body Fungus (Saprolegnia spp.)
Symptoms:
White cottony patches on the skin with long filaments that stand away

Symptoms must be differentiated from the false mouth fungus, Columnaris.

Causes:
Fungi are decomposing organisms that exist in every aquarium. The wound must always be treated immediately. If left untreated, fungal spores can attach themselves on the wounds and eventually harm the fish. They serve as a secondary infection to the wounds and open sores.

Treatment:
Methylene Blue, Jungle Fungus Guard, Mardel Maroxy

http://img174.imageshack.us/img174/5692/funguswg6.th.png (http://img174.imageshack.us/my.php?image=funguswg6.png)

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:07 AM
Glossatella (Heteropolaria colisarium)
Synonyms:
Apiosoma

Symptoms:
A furry coating forms after the mucous membrane has been injured. You can see many elongated protozoans on a short stalk with a strong magnifying glass.

Causes:
Damaged mucous membrane allowing protozoans to invade and expand on the lesions. They do not feed directly on the lesions but on the secondary bacteria and isolated cells of the destroyed tissue.

Treatment:
Sera Costapur, Formalin, Copper Sulfate

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:07 AM
Costia (Ichthyobodo necatrix)
Synonyms:
The name was formerly Costia necatrix, however the name Costia is more familiar and nevertheless still use until today.

Also called "Blue Slime Disease" in reference to heavy secretion of mucous membrane.

Symptoms:
Gray or milky areas of skin, clamped and frayed fins, frequent flashing movements

Causes:
This is caused by external flagellates which are secondary parasites that will gradually appear if the fish succumbs to stress or severely weakened.

Treatment:
Hydrogen peroxide, Formalin, Copper Sulfate, Acriflavine, Sera Costapur, Sera Ectopur

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:07 AM
Chilodonella
Symptoms:
Heavy breathing, flashing movements, clamped fins, overproduction of mucous membrane, lethargic movements, loss of appetite

Causes:
It is caused by the "heart-shaped" ciliated protozoan, Chilodonella itself.

Treatment:
Sera Costapur, Sera Omnisan, Malachite Green, Potassium Permanganate, Formalin, Copper Sulfate, salt baths

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:07 AM
Tetrahymena
Symptoms:
Flashing movements, clamped fins, overproduction of mucous membrane, lethargic movements, loss of appetite

Causes:
It is caused by a teardrop-shaped ciliated protozoan that lives in organic debris on the bottom of the aquarium implying that this is not a parasite at all. In an overloaded aquarium, it is possible that this protozoan will proliferate massively due to water pollution noting that this protozoan lives in areas with very high organic loads.

Treatment:
Sera Costapur, Sera Mycopur, Sera Baktopur, Malachite Green, Potassium Permanganate, Formalin, Copper Sulfate, salt baths

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:08 AM
Trichodina
Symptoms:
Lethargic movements, flashing and rubbing, reddening of certain areas due to rubbing out of sheer extreme irritation

Causes:
Another protozoan that is not actually a parasite and are characterized by their flying saucer shape. It does not feed on fish but use them as a means of transportation from one aquarium to another. Healthy fish is not usually bothered by a low number of protozoans however a big infestation of Trichodina brought by poor water quality and overcrowding can cause extreme irritation and eventually stress to the fish.

Treatment:
Sera Costapur, Sera Omnisan, Malachite Green, Potassium Permanganate, Formalin, Copper Sulfate, salt baths

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:08 AM
Velvet Disease (Oodinium)
Synonyms:
Coral Fish Disease, Amyloodinium

Symptoms:
Fine gold-white "dust", rapid breathing, erratic behavior, flashing, clamped fins, lack of appetite

Causes:
Amyloodinium pillularis infests fish in freshwater environment whereas Amyloodinium ocellatum infests fish in saltwater environment. The fish will look like they have been poured with flour as the spots rapidly spread.

This parasite is a dinoflagellate that can easily spread to other hosts hence it is very contagious. Poor water quality can attribute to their rapid reproduction.

Treatment:
Freshwater dip, hyposalinity, Copper Sulfate, Atabrine (Quinacrine hydrochloride)

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:09 AM
Neon Tetra Disease (Pleistophora hyphessobryconis)
Symptoms:
Restlessness especially at night (a weird behavior can be distinguished when the afflicted fish seems to be swimming on its own while the rest are "asleep"), loss of coloration on its body usually starting on the midsection, secondary infections brought by finrot and dropsy, curved spine, erratic behavior

Causes:
This is caused sporozoan parasites and is very contagious.

Treatment:
There is no known cure up to this date as the sporozoan parasites have proven themselves very resistant to several medications. Any fish suspected to be afflicted or afflicted must be isolated immediately and eventually euthanized if no improvement in its health has been observed in the next few days. Transmission is done mostly by fish picking on the afflicted and spores infecting new hosts as the current host dies.

Notes:
This disease has been confused with Columnaris. Note that the NTD is usually associated with a creamy colored patch which appears to "delete" the actual coloration of the fish. Columnaris is associated with white patches, a case very different from NTD.

Neons are very vulnerable to NTD but this is also found among cichlids, danios, rasboras and other species. There have been several reports that so far only the cardinal tetras are immune to this disease.

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:09 AM
Osmotic Shock
Symptoms:
Detachment of mucous membrane, fins appear to have been blown off, internal diseases become the consequences, increased vulnerability to skin diseases, gill and fin rot.

Causes:
When fish is transferred from water with high conductivity (high salt content) to water with low conductivity without an intermediate phase for adaptation, they suffer from osmotic shock. The fine cartilage joints in the fin rays can burst due to the high osmotic pressure. The fins fall off in large pieces and the fins are eventually infected with fungus and other bacterial infections especially when the fish becomes extremely weakened.

Treatment:
This is more of a case of prevention rather than actual treatment. Measure the conductivity between the water where the fish is and the water where it is to be transferred. The addition of mineral salt to the one with higher conductivity level will help minimize the chances of osmotic shock. Give the fish time to recover from the upheaval. Then, proceed to lowering the conductivity level to the desired level by doing small water changes over several hours.

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:09 AM
Goiter
Symptoms:
Thyroid gland tumor develops in the throat area.

Causes:
Lack of iodine.

Treatment:
Iodized table salt-It can be argued that this type of salt is harmful to fish simply because of the presence of additives and anti-caking agents however there have been reports of the use of iodized table salts without any issues at all. The choice is yours whether you wish to use it or not.

Foods containing iodine-Feed the fish regularly with foods containing iodine. The tumor may recede as time progresses.

Mineral salts-In some places, water does not contain enough iodine. It is therefore advisable to add mineral salts especially when you use reverse-osmosis (RO) water to replenish the minerals lost preventing nutrient deficiency. This must be used regularly until the tumor recedes.

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:10 AM
Constipation
Symptoms:
Slightly large abdomen, no feces are excreted.

Causes:
Incorrect diet or overfeeding. What food are you feeding your fish? How many times do you feed your fish? How long does it take for the fish to consume all the food? It is recommended to minimize the food rations by once or twice a day for fish in their adult stage. A one day fasting per week will certainly compensate for the rest of the days of feeding them. It must be noted there are certain fish species that may eat the food but which is totally not appropriate for them.

Treatment:
Green peas are recommended as they serve as a laxative allowing the fish to excrete their wastes blocked inside their bodies. Always remove the shell and if intended to be fed on fish with small mouth, mash the peas to smaller pieces. Daphnia can also be used as an alternative and usually is better as peas are high in sugar content and can be gassy.

Another alternative is the use of 1/4 teaspoon of epsom salt per 10g. If the fish recovers, improve its diet and change feeding routine.

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:10 AM
Damaged/Pinched Nerves
Symptoms:
Abnormally dark coloration in some parts of the body of the fish.

Causes:
Damaged nerves are a result from stress and shock a fish receives when it is transferred to a completely new environment without the proper acclimatization process set in place.

Treatment:
Let the fish recover in a quarantine tank. Stress coat may be added along with plenty of hiding places

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:10 AM
Continuous darkening of the whole body
Symptoms:
Title is self explanatory. Fish may gasp on the surface.

Causes:
Very poor water quality.

Treatment:
Increase tank maintenance regimen, cut down the number of fish in your aquarium, maximize filtration cap

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:10 AM
Acute poisoning
Symptoms:
All fish or all of the same species die within several hours or one day, often with full color.

Causes:
Recall what you have done near the aquarium’s area. Have you sprayed pesticides, fungicide and other toxic chemicals? Have you use dose the aquarium heavily with copper?

Treatment:
Do plenty of water changes and use activated carbon. You may use the water conditioner at double dose to help bind the excess heavy metal contents. Keep a watch on your water parameters.

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:11 AM
Constant gasping around the surface
Symptoms:
Title is self-explanatory.

Causes:
Oxygen deficiency, excessive levels of carbon dioxide, gill flukes and other gill diseases.

Treatment:
Gill diseases-Please refer to the previous posts for gill diseases and their recommended treatments.

Oxygen deficiency/excessive levels of carbon dioxide-Carry out a very large water change or partial small water changes for several minutes and switch on all air pumps or ensure vigorous surface movements to diffuse the carbon dioxide out of the aquarium.

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:11 AM
Insidious intoxication
Symptoms:
Unnatural coloring, darkening, fish are easily startled especially when you knock on the glass.

Causes:
1. Decorative objects may be releasing toxins.
2. Excessive copper or chlorine levels.
3. Contamination of environmental toxins, disinfectants or detergents coming from the water pipes.
4. Compact substrate with anaerobic bacteria causing the release of hydrogen sulfides which are toxic to the fish.

Treatment:
1. Remove the suspected decorative objects and use the activated carbon.
2 and 3. Refer to the post regarding the Acute poisoning.
4. Disturb the substrate regularly and do plenty of water changes. Compact substrate is quite noticeable when bubbles appear as you disturb the substrate.

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:11 AM
Acidosis/Alkalosis
Symptoms:
Slimy skin (milky and cloudy), bleeding sores, thick cloudy coatings on the eyes, brownish coating on the gills, fish may dart and jump around the aquarium, jerky movements.

Causes:
Acidosis: Very low pH and hardness levels usually associated with pH swings.

Alkalosis: Fluctuation of pH and hardness level.

Treatment:
Acidosis: Check pH and carbonate hardness. Increase the pH and stabilize the carbonate hardness using baking soda, crushed corals, etc.

Alkalosis: Reduce the pH and hardness levels with the use of reverse-osmosis (RO) water and tannic acids by peat or driftwood.

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:11 AM
Cloudy Eyes
Symptoms:
Eyes appearing to have cloudy white or grey "haze" that may cause blindness.

Causes:
Poor water quality, malnutrition, severe stress, overproduction of slime coating, cataracts, old age

Treatment:
I don't usually recommend the use of antibiotics. Frequent water changes are strictly necessary to improve water quality. It will usually clear up on its own if the water quality has improved. Be sure to provide your fish varied diet to improve its resistance against diseases.

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:12 AM
Fish Leech (Piscicola geometra)
Symptoms:
Extreme lethargy, paling or darkening of colour, fish leech can be seen attached to the fish's body

Description:
Fish leech, in comparison to fish lice and anchorworms, are true parasites. They bite into the fish and feed off the fluid and tissue causing severe damage, finally leading to certain death if left unchecked.

As Dieter Untergasser had previously stated in regards to the subject about the Spring Virosis, fish leeches, along with other blood-sucking parasites, serve as vectors in the transmission of the disease, Spring Virosis.

According to Duncan Griffiths, while the leech is a true parasite, it differs from anchor worm and the fish louse in one major aspect: Piscicola geometra does not need to live on the koi, it merely attaches to the host to feed and then, once gorged, it leaves the host and returns only to feed. They are very adept swimmers, and if you study them before you nuke them they can be seen targeting their host from across a pond and swimming quite strongly to their victim.

The leech is also oviparous and produces eggs. Like Argulus, a leech has to leave the host to perform the egg laying function in the weeds or on the pond bottom or sides. The complete life cycle can take up to 30 days, the most common route of infection is via untreated plants introduced to the pond and birds, very rare in incoming fish.

Fish leech measures several centimeters in length and can be seen clearly attached to a fish.

Treatment:
Masoten, Malathion, salt dip, Sera Cyprinopur

Removing fish leeches by pulling is usually not recommended as it can lead to injury to the fish.

1. Dimilin Powder
The only known method of killing this parasite, without killing the fish is DIMILIN POWDER which can be used safely at any water temperature and has an action of sterilizing the adult and larval stages of this parasite which insures that all eggs produced, after the application of Dimilin, will not hatch.

Method: Dimilin Powder at the rate of 1 gram per ton of pond water. Measure out the quantity required and mix in a plastic bucket with pond water ensuring that the powder is dissolved then add to the pond in the previous manner. A second dosage may be needed to ensure that the life cycle of the anchor worm has been halted. After this second application the dead adults, which will still be hanging from the fish, can be removed using tweezers but making sure that the hooks, as well as the tail of the anchor worm are removed and then apply a proprietary topical dressing to prevent a secondary infection.

2. Sera Cyprinopur
Follow the instructions accordingly. Use Sera Baktopur to treat the wounds of the fish after the anchor worms have been pulled out. When pulling anchor worms out of the fish, firmly grasp the tweezers near its base where it is burying to the skin and quickly pull it out.

3. Coumaphos
Coumaphos is an extremely dangerous substance so this may be best administered by mixing one gram on a twenty liter bucket and grabbing at least a liter which makes up for a 5% solution for every 150 gallons of water.

This particular treatment may be best avoided however and try safer options such as dimilin instead.

4. Jungle Anchors Away
Change 25% of the pond water before use.

Use one teaspoon (5 grams) to 40 US gallons. Maintain strong aeration during treatment. Clean measuring device before every use.
Content treats 4,520 US gallons. If needed, safely treat up to three times. Wait six days between treatments. Change 25% of the water before each treatment. Remove activated carbon during use.

Data retrieved from http://www.drsfostersmith.com/.

5. Trichlorfon
Follow instructions carefully. Trichlorfon is available as Masoten, Metriphonate, Dylox, Neguvon, etc.

http://img208.imageshack.us/img208/6940/fishleechxx1.png (http://imageshack.us/)

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:12 AM
Anchorworm (Lernaea elegans)
Description:
The crustacean Lernaea is often called "anchorworm" by aquarists as it anchors deeply in the fish skin with its branched suction organ and has an elongated body without visible limbs. At the back end, there are two sac-like outgrowths where eggs develop.

It takes the eggs between several days and and two weeks to attain maturity. Then they fall off and the larvae hatch. The mother crustacean dies and is repelled from the fish tissue after the eggs have fallen off. The laravae are also parasites and go to the gills of the fish to suck blood. As larvae, they attain sexual maturity there. After mating, the female larvae leave the fish and swim around as planktonic organisms for a short time. Then they find a host and bore their way into its skin.

Treatment:
1. Dimilin Powder
The only known method of killing this parasite, without killing the fish is DIMILIN POWDER which can be used safely at any water temperature and has an action of sterilizing the adult and larval stages of this parasite which insures that all eggs produced, after the application of Dimilin, will not hatch.

Method: Dimilin Powder at the rate of 1 gram per ton of pond water. Measure out the quantity required and mix in a plastic bucket with pond water ensuring that the powder is dissolved then add to the pond in the previous manner. A second dosage may be needed to ensure that the life cycle of the anchor worm has been halted. After this second application the dead adults, which will still be hanging from the fish, can be removed using tweezers but making sure that the hooks, as well as the tail of the anchor worm are removed and then apply a proprietary topical dressing to prevent a secondary infection.

Note
Dimilin also goes under the name diflubenzuron.

2. Potassium Permanganate
There is another way of removing anchor worm but more care has to be taken when removing all parts of the anchor worm which is to mix a strong solution of potassium permanganate crystals of 1 gram into 25 mls of hot water. Mix well until dissolved and then dip the tweezers into this solution prior to the removal of the anchor worm, once the solution touches the body, the anchor worm releases its grip immediately and it can then be lifted clear of the fish and the water. Wipe the end of the tweezers on a clean tissue to remove all traces before attempting to remove another anchor worm.

3. Sera Cyprinopur
Follow the instructions accordingly. Use Sera Baktopur to treat the wounds of the fish after the anchor worms have been pulled out. When pulling anchor worms out of the fish, firmly grasp the tweezers near its base where it is burying to the skin and quickly pull it out.

http://img260.imageshack.us/img260/1966/anchorwormbl3.th.png (http://img260.imageshack.us/my.php?image=anchorwormbl3.png)

4. Coumaphos
Coumaphos is an extremely dangerous substance so this may be best administered by mixing one gram on a twenty liter bucket and grabbing at least a liter which makes up for a 5% solution for every 150 gallons of water.

This particular treatment may be best avoided however and try safer options such as dimilin instead.

5. Jungle Anchors Away
Change 25% of the pond water before use.


Use one teaspoon (5 grams) to 40 US gallons. Maintain strong aeration during treatment. Clean measuring device before every use.
Content treats 4,520 US gallons. If needed, safely treat up to three times. Wait six days between treatments. Change 25% of the water before each treatment. Remove activated carbon during use.

Data retrieved from http://www.drsfostersmith.com/.

6. Trichlorfon
Follow instructions carefully. Trichlorfon is available as Masoten, Metriphonate, Dylox, Neguvon, etc.

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:12 AM
Fish Lice (Argulus)
Description:
A major threat in a pond or tank
Argulus, or fish lice, represent a major threat to fish health; both as a result of direct tissue damage and secondary infections. Fish lice are one of the biggest parasites (5-10 mm) and visible with the naked eye.

Argulus feed by first inserting a pre-oral sting which injects digestive enzymes into the body. They then suck out the liquidised body fluids with their proboscis-like mouth. Feeding can take place on the skin or in the gills.

This feeding activity causes intense irritation. Fish are damaged by the constant piercing of the skin by the stylet and there is often localised inflammation. The other danger is that opportunistic bacteria such as Aeromonas or Pseudomonas sometimes infect these damaged areas leading to skin ulcers and gill disease. It is also believed that the stylus may occasionally ?inject? viruses and bacteria into the fish. The various spines, suckers and hooks that lice use for attachment may also cause additional tissue damage. So all-in-all a thoroughly nasty parasite!

In addition to physical damage, affected fish are subjected to severe stress, which often leads to secondary parasite infestations such as white-spot and Costia. This type of combined attack on stressed and often weakened fish can result in high numbers of fatalities.

So quite clearly, even finding one louse warrants immediate treatment and a follow up examination to check for secondary health problems

Identification
Biologically, Argulus are crustacean parasites in the subphylum Crustacea - which means they are grouped along with shrimps, prawns and water fleas etc. Animals in this group have a rigid or semi-rigid chitin exoskeleton, which has to be moulted as they grow larger. They are in the class Branchiura, a group of crustaceans with very similar features; all branchiurians are fish parasites.

Although it is easy to spot lice when you know they are there, they are easy to miss in the rush to take skin scrapes. To the naked eye they appear as very small dark spots that are easy to overlook unless they move. They are often found in relatively sheltered areas behind the fins or around the head. They are usually easier to spot on fins rather than the body, as they tend to show up more against a plain transparent background. Lice are oval-shaped and flat and capable of moving very quickly. In an aquarium, they can sometimes be seen swimming as they move from host to host.

Fish with a heavy lice infestation will show a classic irritation response such as rubbing and flashing. At a later stage they will become lethargic. Affected fish may have focal red lesions on their body.

The Life Cycle of Argulus
As with most fish parasites, they have a high reproductive potential. Mating takes place on the fish, after which the female swims away and lays eggs on plants and other submerged objects. When the eggs hatch the juvenile passes through several metamorphic changes as it develops into an adult. Around 4 days after hatching, the newly-hatched juvenile actively seeks a host and continues its development on the fish. The whole cycle takes between 30 – 100 days depending on temperature. The eggs can over-winter and hatch in spring as water temperatures increase. Adults can survive without a host for several days. Any treatment plan has to take account of emerging juveniles and therefore prevailing temperatures.

Treatment:
The most successful and effective treatments against lice are organophosphates. Using three treatments over the estimated life cycle of the parasite almost always eradicates lice. At typical summer pond temperatures of 20oC or higher, treatments at 10-day intervals will kill existing adults and juveniles as well as emerging juveniles. The down-side is that in the UK organophosphates are banned for use as fish disease treatments! They are still obtainable - but at a sky-high price!

There are no other treatments currently available that are likely to be totally effective. There is some suggestion that using a chitin inhibitor such as dimilin will stop the juveniles developing as they moult their exoskeleton but there has been no real testing done on this proposal. (dimilin)

More environmentally friendly alternatives are currently undergoing licensing evaluation tests for use in the food-fish industry. However, the draw back is again liable to be costs. Initial reports suggest that these alternatives may be better at controlling rather than eradicating lice.

Suggested Treatments:
1. Dimilin Powder
The only known method of killing this parasite, without killing the fish is DIMILIN POWDER which can be used safely at any water temperature and has an action of sterilizing the adult and larval stages of this parasite which insures that all eggs produced, after the application of Dimilin, will not hatch.

Method: Dimilin Powder at the rate of 1 gram per ton of pond water. Measure out the quantity required and mix in a plastic bucket with pond water ensuring that the powder is dissolved then add to the pond in the previous manner. A second dosage may be needed to ensure that the life cycle of the anchor worm has been halted. After this second application the dead adults, which will still be hanging from the fish, can be removed using tweezers but making sure that the hooks, as well as the tail of the anchor worm are removed and then apply a proprietary topical dressing to prevent a secondary infection.

Note
Dimilin also goes under the name diflubenzuron.

2. Sera Cyprinopur
Follow the instructions accordingly. Use Sera Baktopur to treat the wounds of the fish after the fish lice have been pulled out. When pulling fish lice out of the fish, firmly grasp the tweezers near its base where it is burying to the skin and quickly pull it out.

3. Coumaphos
Coumaphos is an extremely dangerous substance so this may be best administered by mixing one gram on a twenty liter bucket and grabbing at least a liter which makes up for a 5% solution for every 150 gallons of water.

This particular treatment may be best avoided however and try safer options such as dimilin instead.

4. Jungle Anchors Away
Change 25% of the pond water before use.

Use one teaspoon (5 grams) to 40 US gallons. Maintain strong aeration during treatment. Clean measuring device before every use.
Content treats 4,520 US gallons. If needed, safely treat up to three times. Wait six days between treatments. Change 25% of the water before each treatment. Remove activated carbon during use.

Data retrieved from http://www.drsfostersmith.com/.

5. Trichlorfon
Follow instructions carefully. Trichlorfon is available as Masoten, Metriphonate, Dylox, Neguvon, etc.

Discussion Thread:
http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/fo...ad.php?t=42009 (http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/forums/showthread.php?t=42009)

http://img257.imageshack.us/img257/2030/fishliceqn7.th.png (http://img257.imageshack.us/my.php?image=fishliceqn7.png)

http://i143.photobucket.com/albums/r155/Blue_076/fishlice-1.jpg

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:13 AM
Ergasilus
Symptoms:
Fish jumped up and down, rubbing their bodies against the sides and bottom of the tank. The parasites are often big enough to be observed with the naked eye, or at least with a magnifying glass. Thread-like tentacles hanging from the gills are an indication of ergasilus.

Description:
The crustacean Ergasilus is a copepod just like Lernaea. It measures about 1.5 mm. The front antennae have transformed into pointed clasping hooks with which they puncture the skin of the gills in order to attach to the fish. Only the female Ergasilus live on fish as parasites whereas the males are planktonic organisms.

Blood loss is high and secondary infections like gill rot are a frequent consequence. The crustaceans can only be introduced into an aquarium or a garden pond in their larva stage with live feeds from fish ponds.

Reproduction in an aquarum is not probable as in most cases, you do not have both sexes in the aquarium simultaneously.

Treatment:
Dimilin [diflubenzuron], Larvadex, Lufenuron, Trichlorfon, Organophosphates

1. Dimilin Powder
The only known method of killing this parasite, without killing the fish is DIMILIN POWDER which can be used safely at any water temperature and has an action of sterilizing the adult and larval stages of this parasite which insures that all eggs produced, after the application of Dimilin, will not hatch.

Method: Dimilin Powder at the rate of 1 gram per ton of pond water. Measure out the quantity required and mix in a plastic bucket with pond water ensuring that the powder is dissolved then add to the pond in the previous manner. A second dosage may be needed to ensure that the life cycle of the anchor worm has been halted. After this second application the dead adults, which will still be hanging from the fish, can be removed using tweezers but making sure that the hooks, as well as the tail of the anchor worm are removed and then apply a proprietary topical dressing to prevent a secondary infection.

2. Sera Cyprinopur
Follow the instructions accordingly. Use Sera Baktopur to treat the wounds of the fish after the anchor worms have been pulled out. When pulling anchor worms out of the fish, firmly grasp the tweezers near its base where it is burying to the skin and quickly pull it out.

3. Coumaphos
Coumaphos is an extremely dangerous substance so this may be best administered by mixing one gram on a twenty liter bucket and grabbing at least a liter which makes up for a 5% solution for every 150 gallons of water.

This particular treatment may be best avoided however and try safer options such as dimilin instead.

4. Jungle Anchors Away
Change 25% of the pond water before use.

Use one teaspoon (5 grams) to 40 US gallons. Maintain strong aeration during treatment. Clean measuring device before every use.
Content treats 4,520 US gallons. If needed, safely treat up to three times. Wait six days between treatments. Change 25% of the water before each treatment. Remove activated carbon during use.

Data retrieved from http://www.drsfostersmith.com/.

5. Trichlorfon
Follow instructions carefully. Trichlorfon is available as Masoten, Metriphonate, Dylox, Neguvon, etc.

Lupin
10-13-2008, 7:14 AM
The above freshwater and saltwater diseases including disorders and others posted have been compiled for your convenience. Below are the references from where all information of the freshwater and saltwater diseases has been obtained.

Bailey, Mary and Sandford, Gina, The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Aquarium Fish and Fish Care. Anness Publishing Limited Hermes House, 88-89 Blackfairs Road, London SE1 8HA

Pandora’s Aquarium
This site aims to improve its vast archives of diseases and photos. A lot of treatments are often suggested by this site.
http://badmanstropicalfish.com/fish_palace/tropicalfish_disease_identification.html

Sera guide: How to Keep Your Ornamental Fish Healthy
Dieter Untergasser is the scientific consultant of the Sera company. The Sera guidebook was published along with his consultations, researches and experiments for the benefit of several aquarists most especially those who have patronized the Sera products for a long time.

http://www.nfkc.info/
A good website owned by the North Florida Koi Club. It contains details of diseases found mostly in the ponds.

http://www.members.optushome.com.au/chelmon/index.htm
A website “Home of the Rainbowfish” owned by Adrian Tappin which contains an excellent article regarding the Mycobacteriosis disease afflicting several known rainbowfish species especially other species outside the Melanotaenidae genus

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FA041
A website under the ownership of the University of Florida. It has plenty of details on the diseases that surround the aquarium hobby.

www.loaches.com (http://www.loaches.com)
A great source serving as a loach almanac even containing detailed instructions of how to use levamisole hydrochloride and other treatments properly when it comes to loaches.

http://www.fishdoc.co.uk/
This site contains vast details of diseases that surround the aquarium.

http://www.fishvet.com/
This site aims to provide more details of diseases as your reference tools.

http://www.koivet.com/
A good resource for articles.

http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/ivcvm/1999/anders/index.php
A site containing full details of the Erythrodermatitis caused by bacteria of the Aeromonas genus.

http://www.mass.gov/czm/wpfshlth.htm
One of the few sites very rich in details of fish diseases.

http://www.glfc.org/pubs/SpecialPubs/sp83_2/pdf/chap24.pdf
A site documented under the ownership of U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Services

http://homepage.ntlworld.com/duncan.griffiths/Fish%20leech.htm
An article with a very detailed explanation regarding the fish leech.

http://www.koicarp.net/
An excellent website containing mostly information and guidelines for pond care.

http://www.aquaworldnet.com/awmag/diseases.htm#ittiospo
An article containing several databases of various freshwater and saltwater diseases. It, however, lacks sufficient information on treatments against diseases.

http://en.wikipedia.org/
An ultimate website encyclopedia containing almost everything you need to know.

http://www.ices.dk/products/fiche/Disease/2006/Sheet%20no%2053.pdf
A website run by Adobe Reader containing details of a few more unfamiliar diseases.

http://inkmkr.com/Fish/CamallanusTreatment/CamallanusTreatment.pdf
A website containing excellent information regarding the camallanus worms and their prevention and treatment.

http://www.skepticalaquarist.com/
A good website with very detailed explanations in regard to the diseases circulating the home aquaria.

Lupin
09-10-2009, 1:25 AM
Tumor
Symptoms:
Fish with tumor will usually remain unfazed unless the tumor itself begins to hinder its normal body functions. Tumor can come as barely noticeable bumps, black growths or even open bump that may look ulcerated.

Causes:
Please note this excerpt from the main scientific study may not apply much to the aquarium or pond environment due to various factors that we have to differentiate from the natural body of water where this study was supposedly conducted however it gives us a general overview of how and why tumors exactly occur. The questions alone have baffled many aquarium enthusiasts especially those who keep goldfish, koi and hundred other cyprinids.

Types of Tumors Suitable as Impairment Indicators

A comprehensive review documented tumor epizootics from 41 different locations in North America (Harshbarger and Clark 1990). Additional analysis of this data indicated that 22 species of fish had populations with elevated tumor incidence associated with environmental contaminants, and that about two-thirds of these species were benthic or bottom-dwelling fishes (Baumann 1992a). A more recent review, specific to the Great Lakes, and dealing primarily with brown bullhead and white sucker, lists dozens of epizootics in both Canadian and U.S. waters (Baumann et al. 1996). Such tumors are generally categorized into three different groups by etiology: genetically induced, viral induced, and those caused by chemical carcinogens.

Genetically Induced Tumors
Some tumors have a genetic origin or etiology (Baumann 1992b). Hybrids fish species, such as platyfish/swordtail crosses, may be susceptible to tumors because of dilution of modifier genes (Anders 1967) or amplification of oncogene segments (Vielkind and Dippel 1984). Such fish exhibit a certain incidence of “spontaneous” cancers, but are also more susceptible to chemically induced cancers.

Field studies indicate that hybrids between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in the Great Lakes develop gonadal tumors which appear to have a genetic basis (Harshbarger and Clark, 1990; Sonstegard 1977, Smith, 1998). Thus gonadal tumors in carp x goldfish hybrids are unsuitable for use in impairment assessments until a base incidence of “spontaneous” gonadal tumors can be determined.
There has also been a suggestion that bullhead in Great Lakes tributaries are crosses between black and brown bullheads, and thus could be more susceptible to tumors. However, genetic studies to test this hypothesis have not been conducted. Ohio EPA studies have recorded zero brown bullhead/black bullhead hybrids in Lake Erie waters or tributaries. In fact very few black bullheads have been recorded. Furthermore the differing tumor prevalence in different tributaries, and in particular the vastly differing liver tumor frequencies seen over time in single locations such as the Black River, preclude genetics as a major factor influencing tumor development in brown bullhead (Baumann, 1998).

Viral and Multifactorial Tumors
Certain tumors in fish have a viral origin. The classic example is lymphoma in northern pike and muskellunge (Mulcahy and O’Leary 1979, Papas et al 1977, Sonstegard 1976). External tumors having a known viral etiology affect many species including: epidermal hyperplasia in walleye (Smith et al 1992, Martineau et al 1990, Yamamoto et al 1985) and papilloma on Atlantic salmon (Carlise and Roberts 1977), rainbow trout (Roberts and Bullock 1979), white suckers (Baumann et al 1996, Premdas and Metcalfe 1994, Smith et al 1989 a,b, Cairns and Fitzsimmons 1988, Smith and Zajdlik 1987, Sonstegard 1977) and brown bullheads (Smith et al 1989a, Baumann et al 1996).

If external tumors are due to viruses alone, the tumor rate does not increase with age and these tumors can regress spontaneously (Premdas and Metcalfe 1994, Smith and Zajdlik 1987).

Since external tumors in walleye are known to have a viral origin, and since there have been no studies indicating an increased incidence in polluted waters, walleye skin tumors can not be used as indicators of impairment.

Recently scientists have succeeded in inducing lip papillomas in healthy white suckers by injecting cell-free filtrates from papilloma tissue of diseased white sucker (Premdas and Metcalfe 1994). Thus, at least some lip tumors present in white sucker have a clear cut viral etiology.

However, in other situations, pinpointing the underlying cause of a tumor as strictly viral in wild fish is not always possible. For example, with a few exceptions, prevalences of lip tumors in white sucker and brown bullhead are elevated in populations from industrialized Great Lakes areas (Baumann et al 1996 and Premdas et al), pointing to a multifactorial (chemical and viral) etiology. It is postulated that exposure to chemicals increases the incidence of tumors caused by viruses through immune suppression or enhanced viral replication. Thus, in certain situations, the presence of virally induced tumors may be an indicator of exposure to adverse levels of
chemicals in the aquatic environment.

Freshwater drum from some areas in Lake Erie are known to have an increased prevalence of pigment cell tumors (chromatophoromas) (Harshbarger and Clark 1990; Baumann, Okihiro, and Kurey unpublished data). These tumors are found with increasing frequency as the length of the fish increases (Black 1983b). A lower frequency of such tumors exists in the Ohio River. At this time, no cause, either viral or carcinogen, can be assigned to these tumors. In Japanese waters (Kimura et al. 1984) similar tumors in related drum species have been correlated with chemical carcinogen exposure. However, without similar evidence for freshwater drum, such chromatophore tumors in this species cannot currently be used to assess impairment in single species studies. This species, along with all others found in the lake effect zones of Ohio tributaries and Ohio Lake Erie nearshore will be assessed as applicable in the DELTs index results (see section 6.6 and 6.7).

Chemically Induced Tumors
Tumors caused by chemical carcinogens most often affect the liver although lesions have been induced in the skin and numerous other tissues by laboratory exposure (Black, 1983; Hawkins et al. 1989). No liver tumors in any fish have ever been proven to be of viral origin. Nor are epizootics of cancer in non-hybrid, wild fish populations likely to have a purely genetic basis (Baumann 1992b). All thirteen species of benthic fish listed by Harshbarger and Clark (1990) as having had liver tumor epizootics have also had populations from unpolluted areas with documented tumor frequencies below one percent. Furthermore, in five carcinogen laboratory studies reviewed by Baumann (1992b), large numbers of control fish (of three different species) all had less than a one percent incidence of spontaneous liver tumors.

Chemical induction of liver tumors in fish has been done experimentally with a variety of carcinogens via injection, waterborne exposure, and diet (Baumann 1992b). Both skin and liver tumors were induced in brown bullhead by exposure to extracts of sediment from the Buffalo and Black Rivers which contained carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (Black et al. 1983 and Black et al. 1985). Massive field studies have statistically correlated tumor frequencies in English sole with PAH in sediment in Puget Sound (Malins et al. 1984 and Myers et al. 1990). Similarly, a large number of field studies at freshwater locations have linked liver tumors in benthic fish with carcinogens, primarily PAH, in sediment (Vogelbein et al.1990, Baumann 1992a and Baumann et al. 1996). A number of laboratory experiments (Balch et al 1995, Hinton 1989, Metcalfe 1989, Metcalfe et al 1988, 1990, 1995, Hendrick 1985) clearly indicate that the chemicals have the potential to be direct acting carcinogens in fish.

One long-term series of studies in the Black River, Ohio has demonstrated a decline in liver tumors in brown bullhead following a decline in PAH in the river sediment (Baumann and Harshbarger, 1995). After remedial dredging in 1990, buried PAH contaminated sediment wasre-exposed and liver tumor prevalence again increased dramatically (Baumann and Harshbarger 1998). Such fluctuations in an effect which tracks similar fluctuations in the purported cause is one of the strongest epizootiological arguments for a cause and effect relationship.

The most recent literature review on Great Lakes tumor data states that there is sufficient data to warrant the conclusion that high tumor prevalences in suckers and bullheads from the Great Lakes are associated with exposure to chemical contaminants (Baumann et al. 1996). Suckers and bullheads are inshore species that do not migrate extensively. Therefore, the health of these species reflect the impacts of localized aquatic environment conditions on fish health.

Conclusion
In short, the causes of the tumor are by various reasons which we can diagnose if we look back to the history of the fish and the aquarium itself especially as there are indeed numerous products that are carcinogenic to all forms of life, not limited to just human beings. This in itself is rather complex as there are numerous variables that could possibly influence the health and welfare of the fish.

Treatment:
The treatment for tumors has been largely debated. Whether some incidents involved were simply ulcers mistaken for tumors, it remains baffling how tumors can be exactly treated however for those with tumors growing as bumps or lumps visible on the skin of the fish, a surgery may be conducted to remove the tumor if it is suspected to hinder the normal body functions of the fish. If the tumor is found in the gill area for instance, this is a rather critical case as the dramatic growth of the tumor could suffocate the fish to death if it hinders gill movements.

For surgery details, click here.
Goldfish Tumor Removal (http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showthread.php?t=205357)

Just as a warning, you may need to ask for further queries before attempting this. Fish surgeries are by far one of the trickiest procedures. It is best advised not to perform such unless you are confident and careful you can do it otherwise leave this to the fish vets to deal with. Even vets that do not necessarily specialize in fish may lenda helping hand to you however you need to plan this carefully with the fish vet how the procedures should be done properly without killing the fish.

Reference:
www.epa.gov/glnpo/lakeerie/buia/lamp6.pdf (http://www.epa.gov/glnpo/lakeerie/buia/lamp6.pdf)