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FW Fish Profiles

Discussion in 'Profiles' started by Rbishop, Oct 2, 2008.

  1. Rbishop

    Rbishop The glistening drop....
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    Place your FW Fish profiles in this thread, as individual posts. Use the scientific name as the post title.

    Through Post #77.....

    Banded Tiger Loach Syncrossus helodes
    Clown Loach Chromobotia macracanthus

    Hillstream Loach Beaufortia kweichowensis

    Kuhli Loach Pangio kuhlii

    Orange-Finned Loach Yasuhikotakia modesta

    Skunk Loach Yasuhikotakia morleti

    Yoyo Loach Botia almorhae

    Gold Severum Heros severus

    Striped Raphael Catfish Platydoras costatus

    Licorice Gourami Parosphromenus deissneri

    Samurai Gourami Sphaerichthys vaillanti

    Sparkling Gourami Trichopsis pumila

    Bucktoothed Tetra Exodon paradoxus

    Pink-Tailed Chalceus Chalceus macrolepidota

    Adonis Tetra Lepidarchus Adonis

    Striped Anostomus Anostomus anostomus

    Benny Tetra Creagrutus beni

    Black Diamond Gold Piranha Serrasalmus spilopleura

    Black Skirt Tetra Gymnocorymbus ternetzi

    Bleeding Heart Tetra Hyphessobrycon erythrostigma

    Blind Cave Tetra Astyanax mexicanus

    Black Pacu Colossoma macropomum

    Bloodfin Tetra Aphyocharax anisitsi

    Cardinal Tetra Cheirodon axelrodi

    Cochu's Blue Tetra Boehlkea fredcochui

    Lesser Bleeding Heart Tetra Hyphessobrycon socolofi

    Neon Tetra Paracheirodon innesi

    Pepper Tetra Axelrodia stigmatias

    Rummy-Nose Tetra Hemigrammus bleheri

    Rummy-Nose Tetra Hemigrammus rhodostomus

    Rummy-Nose Tetra Petitella georgiae

    Serpae Tetra Hyphessobrycon serape

    Silver-tipped Tetra Hasemania nana

    Socolof's Tetra Gymnocorymbus socolofi

    Redtailed Barracuda Acestrorhynchus falcatus

    Congo Tetra Phenacogrammus interruptus

    Black Neon Tetra Hemigrammus herbertaxelrodi

    Columbian Tetra Hyphessobrycon columbianus

    Buenos Aires Tetra Hyphessobrycon caudovittatus

    Black Phantom Tetra Megalamphodus megalopterus

    Emperor Tetra Nematobrycon palmeri

    Dwarf Redfin Rasbora Boraras brigittae

    Dwarf Spotted Rasbora Boraras maculates

    Australian Arowana Scleropages jardinii

    Black Darter Tetra Poecilocharax weitzmani

    Angelfish Pterophyllum scalare

    Deep Angelfish Pterophyllum altum

    Longnosed Angelfish Pterophyllum leopoldi

    Discus Symphysodon aequifasciatus

    Blue Ram Microgeophagus ramirezi

    Bolivian Ram Microgeophagus altispinosa

    Cockatoo Dwarf Cichlid Apistogramma cacatuiodes

    Agassiz's Dwarf Cichlid Apistogramma agassizi

    Borell's Dwarf Cichlid Apistogramma Borelli

    Bumblebee Oscar Astronotus orbicularis

    Oscar Astronotus ocellatus

    Leichardt's Arowana Scleropages leichardti

    Asian Arowana Scleropages formosus

    Jaguar Cichlid Parachromis managuense

    Gulper Catfish Asterophysus batrachus

    Starry Woodcat Trachelyopterus galeatus

    Oto Catfish Otocinclus affinis

    Whiptail Catfish Rineloricaria parva

    Royal Whiptail Sturisoma panamense

    Farlowella gracilis Farlowella gracilis

    Black Banded Leporinus Leporinus fasciatus

    Apollo Shark Luciosoma pellegrini

    Golden Shark Leptobarbus hoevenii

    Diamond Tetra Moenkhausia pittieri

    Glowlight Tetra Hemigrammus erythrozona

    Siamese Fighting Fish Betta splendens

    Giant Gourami Osphronemus gorami

    Pearl Gourami Trichogaster leeri

    Dwarf Gourami Colisa lalia

    Honey Gourami Colisa chuna

    Moonlight Gourami Trichogaster microlepis

    Cherry Barb Puntius titteya
     
    #1 Rbishop, Oct 2, 2008
    Last edited: Jan 4, 2009
  2. Lupin

    Lupin Registered Member

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    Banded Tiger Loach (Syncrossus helodes)

    Syncrossus helodes
    Common name: Tiger Loach, Green Tiger Loach, Banded Tiger Loach
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 12 inches
    pH range: 6.0-7.0
    Temperature range: 24-28 degrees Celsius (76-82 degrees Fahrenheit)
    Origin: Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia
    Temperament: extremely aggressive
    Compatible Tankmates: Available in this link. Usually feisty tankmates that can handle their aggression are recommended as tankmates with this fish such as tiger barbs, arulius barbs and garras.
    Diet: Meaty foods such as bloodworms, earthworms, snails, mussels and shrimps are appreciated greatly.
    Tank Size for Adult: Due to their slow growth rate, a 75g can handle 6-8 of these fish. An upgrade in tank size will be needed once they reach six inches in length as they tend to cover large areas as they clash to settle territorial disputes.
    Narrative:
    Syncrossus helodes is one of the loaches of the Syncrossus genus that is available from time to time although not as popular as the others like the Yasuhikotakia morleti. They are the largest in their genus growing to 12 inches looking more bulky in appearance as they mature. Their color fades away slightly as they mature. Just a few hints, they can be distinguished from Syncrossus hymenophysa by counting the number of stripes which is 10-11 vertical stripes whereas the latter has more than that. The stripes of Syncrossus helodes from the head to dorsal fin are slanted towards the tail whereas it is otherwise in the case of the Syncrossus hymenophysa.

    These fish tend to burrow crevices under boulders so make sure the rock placement is stable otherwise you will know what disastrous consequences will be if you do not follow the precautions stated above.
     
    #2 Lupin, Oct 2, 2008
    Last edited: Oct 7, 2008
  3. Lupin

    Lupin Registered Member

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    Clown Loach (Chromobotia macracanthus)

    Chromobotia macracanthus

    [​IMG]

    Common name: Clown Loach
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 16 inches
    pH range: 6.0-7.0
    Temperature range: 26-30 degrees Celsius (78-86 degrees Fahrenheit)
    Origin: Indonesia
    Temperament: peaceful
    Compatible Tankmates: Available in this link. Recommended tankmates usually include large species of danios, barbs and peaceful cichlids as long as they can handle the powerful currents the clown loaches require. They should not also be mixed with extremely aggressive cichlids as they cannot take brutal beatings easily.

    Angelfish and discus may not be suitable tankmates at all as clown loaches are rather inquisitive fish and their actions may simply stress the cichlids and even possibly nip their fins.

    Diet: Meaty foods such as bloodworms, earthworms, snails, mussels and shrimps are appreciated greatly.
    Tank Size for Adult: Due to their slow growth rate, a 75g can handle 6-8 of these fish. An upgrade in tank size will be needed once they reach six inches in length.

    Narrative:
    Clown loach is considered to be the most gregarious of all well-known loaches. It has been the most popular member in the loach family yet a lot of people fail to realize how large this fish actually grows and very few aquaria can readily accommodate their requirements. Allow a bare minimum of 75 gallons when keeping a small group of clown loaches. They require very powerful and efficient filtration systems, strong currents provided by the powerheads, frequent water changes and more attention to the cleanliness of their environment.

    Tank should have subdued lighting, soft substrate and numerous hiding places. Plants should also be strong enough not to be easily uprooted. Do not expect most of your plants to survive. Clown loaches (including all other botiine loaches) have a habit for punching holes on the foliage thus damaging the plants. Plants with soft foliage are more vulnerable to such damage in comparison to tougher ones. Java ferns and vallisneria species are almost always guaranteed to survive the loaches' nasty habit along with anubias species.

    Clown loaches have little or no scales at all so they fall under the category of scaleless fish where all scaleless fish will succumb easily to various medications if use at heavy doses. It is always advisable to treat with only half of the recommended dosage so as not to further endanger the health of the fish. Do not use salt if you intend to treat the loaches. The same thing applies to almost all bottom dwellers as salt can burn their skin.

    When buying clown loaches, please be very observant with their behavior and body structure. You are advised to avoid at all costs clown loaches that appear to have chronic skinny disease. Symptoms will include their obvious skinny appearance where the skull and spinal column are almost visible and concaved stomach. Recommended treatment for this is Levamisole hydrochloride. Ask your local fish store for their sources. This should be applicable to all loaches and more particularly, those that are caught directly from the wild.

    Sexual dimorphism is not apparent until spawning season wherein females are often perceived to be taller in body shape comparative to the males if well-fed. Clown loaches do not reach sexual maturity until several years.

    Breeding: There has been a few breeding records however a lot of this were not properly documented or successful.
     
    #3 Lupin, Oct 2, 2008
    Last edited: Oct 7, 2008
  4. Lupin

    Lupin Registered Member

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    Hillstream Loach (Beaufortia kweichowensis)

    Beaufortia kweichowensis

    [​IMG]

    Common name: Hillstream loach, Borneo sucker, China sucker, Butterfly pleco, Stingray pleco, Hong Kong pleco
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 2.5 inches
    pH range: 6.5-7.5
    Temperature range: 18-24 degrees Celsius (68-76 degrees Fahrenheit)
    Origin: Borneo, Sumatra
    Temperament: peaceful
    Compatible Tankmates: Available in this link.

    Tankmates should be able to tolerate very low temperatures and fast flowing currents. White cloud mountain minnows and several species of danios and devarios make suitable tankmates along with peaceful Schistura species and other hillstream loach species.
    Diet:
    Diet consists mostly of algae and aufwuches which harbor the algae. This, in short, makes us think hillstream loaches are indeed omnivores. They have been fed so far with bloodworms, mosquito larva, shrimps and plenty other foods. Small artificial foods will also be appreciated by this fish.

    Tip: In order to ensure the continuous supply of algae, the use of sunlight, fertilizers/fish food and dechlorinated tap water in a bucket/spare aquarium (not the main river aquarium!) are very important and will be sufficient enough to grow algae in a few days. Simply place a few rocks inside the bucket of water. Put a pinch of fish food or dose it with fertilizer designed for aquarium plants. Once you are done with the above, place the bucket under direct sunlight. Wait patiently for a few days and you should expect green algal growth among the rocks. Alternately use the rocks by placing a few ones at a time in the main aquarium for the hillstream loaches to feed. Return the rocks to the bucket and use the others thus ensuring you will not run out of the supply of algae which is very important to the well being of the fish.
    Tank Size for Adult: 20g minimum for a group of 8-10.
    Narrative:
    There are several species of hillstream loaches available all around Asia, however, details will be posted for specifics. They are easily distinguished from Gastromyzons by their smaller mouth shape and wider body appearance. A lot of these species can reach to 2-3 inches maximum size although smaller in captivity.

    This fish has long been called in several other names including Borneo Sucker, Stingray Pleco, Butterfly Pleco and China Sucker. While they do closely resemble the plecos, the truth is they are neither plecos nor can they be considered as catfish. They are loaches thus falling under the cyprinids category.

    Hillstream loaches inhabit fast-flowing streams with boulders and this must be replicated in captivity to satisfy their needs. In short, a tank with substrate and smooth rocks coated with algae make a suitable environment for them. Keep them at a temperature ranging 65-76 degrees Fahrenheit. Higher than that can result in inactivity and reduction of oxygen supply. Plants may be recommended as well to ensure excellent water quality as this fish actually prefers very clean water as evident in their habitat. Provide powerful currents and surface movements to ensure very high oxygen supply and continuing comfort in their home. They will not last long enough if the oxygen is greatly depleted or if any of their requirements are not met at all.

    Sexing is not easy and may actually vary depending on the species. As far as breeding, some species have been successfully bred. One species worth mentioning is Sewella lineolata, one of the species well known for its beautiful reticulated patterns.

    On tank maintenance, doing 20-30% water change on daily basis is recommended. Small frequent water changes are far more safer for this fish than big water changes at different time intervals as they will not be happy with the tremendous changes in water conditions.

    Lastly, it has been acknowledged so far that hillstream loaches can last as long as five years provided they are not deprived of the requirements that will allow them to thrive in your tank happily.
     
    #4 Lupin, Oct 2, 2008
    Last edited: Oct 7, 2008
  5. Lupin

    Lupin Registered Member

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    Kuhli Loach (Pangio kuhlii)

    Pangio kuhlii
    Common name: Kuhli loach, Eel loach
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 4 inches
    pH range: 6.0-7.0
    Temperature range: 24-28 degrees Celsius (76-82 degrees Fahrenheit)
    Origin: Indonesia (varies with most species)
    Temperament: peaceful
    Compatible Tankmates: Available in this link.

    Small peaceful tankmates such as Microrasbora erythromicron and Danio margaritatus are very suitable with kuhli loaches.
    Diet:
    These fish do not eat snails contrary to other people's belief. The shape of their mouth is not designed for such task at all and would be less effective when compared to the botiine loaches. As these fish have a rather small mouth, make sure to feed them tiny morsels. It is advisable to feed them mainly at night as these fish are rather nocturnal.
    Tank Size for Adult: 20g minimum for a group of 8-10.
    Narrative:
    Pangio spp. have a rather serpentine body shape and grow up to four inches in length. They are quite suitable for community setups and as these are rather sociable fish, do not keep them in less than five in number or you will never be able to see them. They prefer a tank with plenty of hiding places, soft substrate and subdued lighting. They are also quite adept at avoiding being caught due to the fact they can bury themselves under substrate and can even slip behind decorations with ease and inside filter intakes so make sure all filter intakes have been blocked. Do not use rough and sharp objects for the tank containing Pangios as these are prone to injuring themselves in their dash.
     
    #5 Lupin, Oct 2, 2008
    Last edited: Oct 7, 2008
  6. Lupin

    Lupin Registered Member

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    Orange-Finned Loach (Yasuhikotakia modesta)

    Yasuhikotakia modesta

    [​IMG]

    Common name: Red-finned loach, Orange-finned loach, Yellow-finned loach
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 10 inches
    pH range: 6.0-7.0
    Temperature range: 24-28 degrees Celsius (76-82 degrees Fahrenheit)
    Origin: Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand
    Temperament: extremely aggressive
    Compatible Tankmates: Available in this link. Usually feisty tankmates that can handle their aggression are recommended as tankmates with this fish such as tiger barbs, arulius barbs and garras.

    Due to their attitude, they may be best kept in a tank with Yasuhikotakia morleti, Yasuhikotakia eos, Syncrossus spp and other large and aggressive loaches.
    Diet: Meaty foods such as bloodworms, earthworms, snails, mussels and shrimps are appreciated greatly.
    Tank Size for Adult: Due to their slow growth rate, a 75g can handle 6-8 of these fish. An upgrade in tank size will be needed once they reach six inches in length as they tend to cover large areas as they clash to settle territorial disputes.
    Narrative:
    Yasuhikotakia modesta is another popular loach although second only to the Chromobotia macracanthus. They are extremely aggressive so it is unwise to try them in community setups where they will inflict physical damage on their fellow tankmates. A large tank should be in order due to their potential size and as they are rather feisty, they need a very spacious tank where they can mark their boundaries and establish social hierarchy.

    These have long been confused with Yasuhikotakia lecontei. They are quite discernable due to the fact Yasuhikotakia lecontei has a more slender body shape and are almost silvery in color compared to the Yasuhikotakia modesta who has a more compact body shape appearance. Several morphs are available often with orange to yellow fins and a few times, some have rather pink body.

    Be careful when attempting to catch them because like all other botiine loaches, they have a spine found under each eye as a means of defense mechanism.

    Lastly, there have been dyed specimens circulating around. Why they were dyed despite their natural coloration is not understood. These fish do not need improvement in their natural coloration. There is no reason to condone such act of cruelty. These are quite easily distinguished by splotches of color around the body which is quite different from the ones that are not dyed.
     
    #6 Lupin, Oct 2, 2008
    Last edited: Oct 7, 2008
  7. Lupin

    Lupin Registered Member

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    Skunk Loach (Yasuhikotakia morleti)

    Scientific Name: Yasuhikotakia morleti
    Common name: Skunk loach
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 4 inches
    pH range: 6.0-7.0
    Temperature range: 24-28 degrees Celsius (76-82 degrees Fahrenheit)
    Origin: Cambodia, Laos, Thailand
    Temperament: extremely aggressive
    Compatible Tankmates:
    Usually feisty tankmates that can handle their aggression are recommended as tankmates with this fish such as tiger barbs, arulius barbs and garras.

    Due to their attitude, they may be best kept in a tank with Yasuhikotakia modesta, Yasuhikotakia eos, Syncrossus spp and other large and aggressive loaches.
    Diet: Meaty foods such as bloodworms, earthworms, snails, mussels and shrimps are appreciated greatly.
    Tank Size for Adult: 55g minimum for over 15 skunk loaches with several hiding places for them to establish territories.
    Narrative:
    Do not let this fish's diminutive size and cute appearance deceived you. They are, by far, one of the nastiest loaches you can ever see despite their size. Due to their attitude, they do not make good community fish at all and will inflict physical damage if care is not taken in selecting their tankmates properly.

    Like all other loaches, they form a social hierarchy enjoyed by most hobbyists. In a large aquarium with plenty of hiding places provided, they will forever clash against each other often making loud clicking noises. They can be kept with larger aggressive loaches such as the Yasuhikotakia modesta, Yasuhikotakia eos and Syncrossus spp.

    [​IMG]
     
    #7 Lupin, Oct 2, 2008
    Last edited: Oct 27, 2008
  8. Lupin

    Lupin Registered Member

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    Yoyo Loach (Botia almorhae)

    Scientific Name: Botia almorhae
    Common name: Yoyo loach, Pakistani loach
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 6 inches
    pH range: 6.0-7.0
    Temperature range: 24-28 degrees Celsius (76-82 degrees Fahrenheit)
    Origin: Bangladesh, India, Nepal
    Temperament: peaceful to slightly aggressive
    Compatible Tankmates:
    Slow moving and long finned specimens will not be able to handle the feisty nature of these loaches so keeping them with barbs, danios, rasboras and other fast moving species is hugely recommended.
    Diet: Meaty foods such as bloodworms, earthworms, snails, mussels and shrimps are appreciated greatly.
    Tank Size for Adult: 40g minimum for a group of 3-5.
    Narrative:
    Botia almorhae is one of the most commonly available loaches in the hobby. It is very fortunate that they grow no more than six inches which makes them quite suitable for smaller aquarium setups (although it should be no smaller than 40 gallons). They are one of the most boisterous loaches. They are not as nocturnal as the other loaches and will often be seen interacting a lot with each other most of the day. They are also recorded to be one of the fastest growing loaches.

    No two fish have similar markings. As they grow, you will notice that the patterns between the two loaches tend to differ. Some may eventually develop reticulated patterns branching out from what seemed simple yoyo patterns.

    No successful captive breeding has ever been reported despite several female specimens found to be filled with roe. Males usually are identified by the redness found around their mouths.

    [​IMG]
     
    #8 Lupin, Oct 2, 2008
    Last edited: Oct 27, 2008
  9. Lupin

    Lupin Registered Member

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    Gold Severum (Heros efasciatus)

    Heros efasciatus

    [​IMG]

    Common name: Gold Severum
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 8-10 inches
    pH range: 6.0-7.0
    Temperature range: 23-27 degrees Celsius (74-80 degrees Fahrenheit)
    Origin: Amazon basin, South America
    Temperament: peaceful to slightly aggressive
    Compatible Tankmates:
    Severums are fairly peaceful for cichlids. They should, however, be kept with similar-sized fish, as they may pick on smaller, slower moving fish. Ideal tankmates would be similar-sized South American cichlids, plecos and possibly large tetras. The tankmates should nevertheless be big enough not to be regarded as treats. Giant danios, plecos, synodontis, other cichlids, loaches and Mastacembelus often make fine tankmates.
    Diet:
    Severums are not fussy eaters and will consume almost everything provided. As these are omnivores, they will eat plant matter and meaty foods. Please do make sure the rest of the fish can get their fair share of foods as these severums do tend to outstrip their competition for food.
    Tank Size for Adult:
    Due to their fast growth rate which eventually slows down the moment they reach six inches, it is recommended that a 40g be provided as a start for one severum. A 55g will accommodate a pair of severums.
    Narrative:
    Severums originated from Amazon River basin in South America where water is soft and acidic although captive-bred severums can adapt well to different water conditions when acclimated properly.

    Heros efasciatus are often confused with the Heros severus. The difference is H. efasciatus are substrate spawners whereas as H. severus are mouthbrooders.

    They are often sold as juveniles in pet stores and are not as expensive as the adults are. It will be worth your while buying them as juveniles and raise them to adulthood. This species can grow 8-10 inches and this must be considered before you purchase them. Growth rate eventually slows down the moment they reach 5-6 inches.

    The tank must be large enough with 40 gallons as the minimum when keeping one. A tank should be furnished with plenty of driftwoods, substrate and plastic plants. Ideally, Java ferns and anubias may work. Several live plants will not last a long time as the severums will eventually shred them to pieces.

    Males and females are very difficult to distinguish although females do have shorter anal and dorsal fins. Females are also reported to have slightly lighter coloration than males with few or even no squiggle marks on their faces.

    During spawning season, like all other cichlids, males should have ovipositors with the tip shaped rather pointed and positioned almost forward whereas females will have a round tip and positioned backwards. These are open water breeders and will lay eggs reaching 500 and more. They tend for their fry afterwards.
     
    #9 Lupin, Oct 6, 2008
    Last edited: Mar 19, 2009
  10. Lupin

    Lupin Registered Member

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    Striped Raphael Catfish (Platydoras costatus)

    Platydoras costatus
    Common Name: Striped Raphael Catfish
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 8 inches
    pH range: 6.5-7.5
    Temperature Range: 24-28 degrees Celsius (76-82 degrees Fahrenheit)
    Origin:
    Widely distributed around Brazil particularly the Amazon basin, Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay.
    Temperament: peaceful
    Compatible Tankmates:
    They are suitable with plenty of community fish although care must be taken not to mix them with fish that may appear tempting for them to eat. They, like other fish, can be opportunistic and may try to gorge fish that will fit their mouths.
    Diet:
    These fish will appreciate all aquarium foods given.
    Tank Size for Adult: 40g
    Narrative:
    Striped Raphael catfish are relatively easy to keep. Care must be taken when handling this fish as it has sharp pectoral fins which can cause serious damage to the fish nets and even the hands if not handled properly.

    They are not fussy with water conditions at all and will appreciate a tank with plenty of hiding places. Take note that it is always advisable to provide plenty of hiding places for these fish to avoid long-term stress which can be detrimental to their health. At first, these fish are shy and will often not show up for a few weeks, even months. Later on, they will eventually show up parading almost in front of the tank looking for foods, if not during feeding time.

    These fish tend to gorge anything you give them so feed them sparingly or you will see them appear to have eaten a golf ball.

    Sexing and breeding are not known so far.
     
    #10 Lupin, Oct 6, 2008
    Last edited: Oct 6, 2008
  11. Lupin

    Lupin Registered Member

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    Licorice Gourami (Parosphromenus deissneri)

    Parosphromenus deissneri
    Common Name: Licorice Gourami
    Care Level: moderately easy
    Size: 1.5 inch
    pH Range: 4.0-7.0
    Temperature Range: 24-29 degrees Celsius (76-84 degrees Fahrenheit)
    Origin:
    Eastern Malaysian Peninsula and north of Southern Thailand
    Temperament: peaceful
    Compatible Tankmates:
    Considering this fish cannot really compete well with other fish for food, I would recommend keeping them with other small fish making sure they are equally competitive. They can be mixed with Corydoras panda, Corydoras paleatus, Sturisoma panamense and sparkling gouramis (Trichopsis pumila). Other suitable tankmates will include the chocolate gouramis (Sphaerichthys osphromenoides), samurai gouramis (Sphaerichthys vaillanti) and the wild betta species such as Betta coccina, Betta smaragdina, etc.
    Diet:
    For this fish, live foods are a must and are very important. The food menu must also be varied. They will appreciate bloodworms, mosquito larva, daphnia, brine shrimps, mealworms and commercial foods. They cannot and will not live on commercial foods alone and have the tendency to starve themselves to death.
    Tank Size for Adult: 6-8 adult licorice gouramis can fit in a 15g minimum.
    Narrative:
    Licorice gouramis hail from the eastern Malaysian Peninsula and north of Southern Thailand. The water there is very soft and acidic. They live in parts of the river system where water is very slow-moving but well-oxygenated.

    A few things to keep in mind, this fish naturally thrives best in soft, acidic water, so your best bet is to make sure the tank water is filtered through peat. Driftwoods and Indian almond leaves are also a must. For the sake of this fish, learn to accept and bear with the appearance of your yellow water. The tannins themselves are what makes the fish healthier and less prone to fungal and bacterial infections. For more information on tannins, please see this entry.

    The next thing to proceed with is tank size. Many people claim smaller tanks are more unstable in terms of water conditions than large tanks. While this is true, there are benefits with keeping smaller tanks as well. You should know how to keep everything stable without panicking. A tank size of 15 gallons is the minimum I would recommend although even smaller than that will work. The biggest tank I would surely recommend is 25 gallons. Larger than that will not be recommended as the fish will simply feel "lost" in its environment.

    For a 15 gallons tank, you should be able to keep 8-12 of these fish. The tank must be furnished with leaf litter (Indian almond leaves), driftwoods, pipes (yes, pipes) and several plants. Substrate will not matter but do make sure it is inert and won't affect the pH. Java moss is very important and is much appreciated by this fish as a means of refuge. Filtration should not produce too much currents as this fish will certainly not appreciate the currents. A sponge filter should be sufficient.

    On tank maintenance, doing 20-30% water change on daily basis is strictly recommended. Small frequent water changes are far more safer for this fish than big water changes as they will not be happy with the tremendous changes in water conditions.

    Sexing is not very easy however it has been mentioned that the males could have longer ventral fins in comparison to the females. Also, males appear to be more colorful than the females.

    Unlike other anabantid species, licorice gouramis are cave spawners and will not create bubblenests near the surface. Instead, they will construct a bubblenest inside the cave they pick (which is why I recommended pipes and eventually Java moss for added security and comfort). For more information on breeding, you can click this link.
     
    #11 Lupin, Oct 6, 2008
    Last edited: Oct 7, 2008
  12. Lupin

    Lupin Registered Member

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    Samurai Gourami (Sphaerichthys vaillanti)

    Sphaerichthys vaillanti

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    Common Name: Samurai Gourami
    Care Level: moderately easy​
    Size: 2.5 inches
    pH Range: 4.0-7.0
    Temperature Range: 26-28 degrees Celsius (78-82 degrees Fahrenheit)
    Origin: Kalimantan River in Borneo
    Temperament: moderately peaceful
    Compatible Tankmates:
    Boisterous fish species must be avoided as they will not do well in company of those. If other inhabitants must be provided, make sure they are equally quiet and peaceful. Microrasbora sp., Boraras sp., Pangio sp. and most Corydoras sp. suit well in a tank containing these gouramis.
    Diet:
    Like their cousins, Sphaerichthys vaillanti may also be picky when it comes to foods so you will be lucky if your own fish manages to consume commercial foods without too much hesitation otherwise be prepared to keep a constant supply of live foods and frozen foods. They will forever relish mosquito larva, daphnia, brine shrimps and bloodworms. Freeze-dried foods may not be taken easily as they will with live foods and frozen foods.
    Tank Size for Adult: 20g for a group of 6 adults
    Narrative: Many people believe a lot of gouramis are very easy to keep and care for however it must be remembered that hundreds of other species have clearly not been known yet and some may have requirements more complicated than others. There are quite a few species of gouramis that have such requirements including the popular Chocolate Gouramis (Sphaerichthys osphromenoides osphromenoides) and the Licorice Gourami (Parosphromenus deissneri).

    There is one gourami however that is not as sensitive as the Chocolate Gouramis (Sphaerichthys osphromenoides osphromenoides), yet, should still be treated with great care. It is the Sphaerichthys vaillanti which has been found in the hobby from time to time although they are still not commonly available. However, a few hobbyists are lucky enough to encounter them given the fact they are able to source them from reputable dealers online globally.

    Sphaerichthys vaillanti is one of those fish that is categorized under Anabantidae. Though several species of gouramis are already popular around the trade given the fact they have the ability to survive oxygen-depleted environments and even deteriorating water conditions, most species have yet to be discovered while several others are now extinct or under threat due to increasing human activities which leads to the destruction of their native habitats.

    The Sphaerichthys vaillanti hail from the Kalimantan River in Borneo. The water there is very soft and acidic with a pH as low as 4-5. They live in parts of the river system where water is very slow-moving. Visibility is slightly poor owing to the fact the water is amber in color from the rotting leaves surrounding their habitat.

    In an aquarium similarly, driftwoods must be put in placed to serve as refuge for these fish. Water must be filtered with peat, oak leaves or Indian almond leaves to maintain the acidity required. They may be acclimated in pH higher than that of their native habitats however best results are always found in conditions replicating their native habitats. Fungal infections are far more common in cases where they are kept in water conditions far from the conditions their native habitat has provided them. Dim lighting is also a must as these are very timid fish. Likewise, providing more plants always helps as this allows the fish to feel secured enough in their surroundings that you will see them showing their best. Temperature must be maintained at 26-28 degrees Celsius.

    These gouramis are a bit larger than most of their sensitive cousins growing to 7-8 cm. These are best kept in a small group rather than pairs with a tank minimum of 20g for a group of six. They are very peaceful fish that will dwell in the middle to lower regions of the tank. It is often observed that a pair may established a large territory although no serious damage nor dominance behavior will occur as it does to their more popular cousins. Boisterous fish species must be avoided as they will not do well in company of those. If other inhabitants must be provided, make sure they are equally quiet and peaceful. Microrasbora sp., Boraras sp., Pangio sp. and most Corydoras sp. suit well in a tank containing these gouramis.

    Sexing may be a little tricky however if you are observant, the female may have vertical red and green bars. Males are usually plainer in looks with a pale gray or brown tint. The colors become more intense during spawning period. Sphaerichthys vaillanti are mouth-brooders. Their breeding ritual seems far the opposite of what most anabantids do. Females are the ones who usually will defend their territory whereas the male broods the eggs. The male will be unable to eat as he will keep the eggs inside his mouth for nearly two weeks until they hatch.
     
    #12 Lupin, Oct 6, 2008
    Last edited: Oct 7, 2008
  13. Lupin

    Lupin Registered Member

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    Sparkling Gourami (Trichopsis pumila)

    Trichopsis pumila

    [​IMG]

    Common Name: Sparkling Gourami
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 2 inches
    pH Range: 4.0-7.0
    Temperature Range: 25-29 degrees Celsius (77-84 degrees Fahrenheit)
    Origin: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam
    Temperament: moderately peaceful
    Origin:
    Sparkling gouramis originated from Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. They live in tropical ditches, small ponds, rice paddies and slow-flowing rivers and streams where water is often very low in oxygen levels.
    Compatible Tankmates:
    Considering this fish cannot really compete well with other fish for food, I would recommend keeping them with other small fish making sure they are equally competitive. They can be mixed with Corydoras panda, Corydoras paleatus, Sturisoma panamense and sparkling gouramis (Trichopsis pumila). Other suitable tankmates will include the chocolate gouramis (Sphaerichthys osphromenoides), samurai gouramis (Sphaerichthys vaillanti) and the wild betta species such as Betta coccina, Betta smaragdina, etc.
    Diet:
    For this fish, live foods are a must and are very important. The food menu must also be varied. They will appreciate bloodworms, mosquito larva, daphnia, brine shrimps, mealworms and commercial foods. They cannot and will not live on commercial foods alone and have the tendency to starve themselves to death.
    Tank Size for Adult: 3 sparkling gouramis can fit in a 5g minimum.
    Narrative:
    Sparkling gouramis are very easy to keep and are not fussy with the water conditions as long as they are acclimated properly. A trio of sparkling gouramis can be kept in a planted 5 gallons tank.

    The tank can be furnished with leaf litter (Indian almond leaves), driftwoods and several plants. Substrate will not matter but do make sure it is inert and won't affect the pH. Since their habitat is mostly composed of vegetative matter, they will appreciate a heavily-planted tank with plenty of floating plants. Filtration should not produce too much currents as this fish will certainly not appreciate the currents. A sponge filter should be sufficient.

    On tank maintenance, doing 20-30% water change on daily basis is strictly recommended. Small frequent water changes are far more safer for this fish than big water changes as they will not be happy with the tremendous changes in water conditions.

    There is no easy way of distinguishing their sexes unless you are very observant of the differences between the possible male and female.

    Sparkling gouramis will spawn in the same fashion as bettas although the bubblenest is usually created under a large leaf so this is very important when attempting to breed them.
     
    #13 Lupin, Oct 6, 2008
    Last edited: Oct 7, 2008
  14. Lupin

    Lupin Registered Member

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    Bucktoothed Tetra (Exodon paradoxus)

    Exodon paradoxus
    Common Name: Bucktoothed Tetra
    Care Level: moderately easy
    Size: 4 inches
    pH Range: 6.0-7.0
    Temperature Range: 22-27 degrees Celsius (72-82° F)
    Origin: Northern Brazil and the Guyanas
    Temperament: aggressive
    Compatible Tankmates:
    In the aquarium, bucktoothed tetras are best kept with other large characins, such as silver dollars and red-tailed characins. Catfish of all sizes also make good tankmates. They can only be kept with each other in groups of more than ten. If kept in groups smaller, there will be plenty of fighting and you will end up with a bunch of bucktoothed tetras missing fins and eyes. They damage fairly easily, so very aggressive tankmates are out of the question. An aquarium of 50 gallons designated to a shoal is the best way to go. They might even breed in this sort of situation.
    Diet:
    Give them food, and lots of it, in the form of live insects and worms. They require plentiful amounts (to put it in prospective, a 2" specimen can completely devour a full grown cricket bite by bite). Live fish are also avidly eaten. Once in a while it is good to give them vegetable matter in the form of oatmeal, or cucumber. The aquarium should have plenty of swimming space and areas of cover and shade. Do not keep these fish with other fish smaller than half their size, for they will surely be eaten bite by bite.
    Tank Size for Adult: 30g for a group of 6 adults
    Narrative:
    The Bucktoothed Tetra is a unique and beautiful shoaling Characin from tropical South American rivers and tributaries.

    The body shape is typical of all tetras, except the jaws and teeth are heavier and more well-developed. The coloring and pattern are striking and unusual. There are 2 pairs of huge, black occellatus spots - one covering the caudal penduncle, and one just under the upper-back. The rest of the body is white-silver which is tanged with either violet-blue or violet-red. The fins are often pigmented with red or yellow.

    These fish shoal in groups of no less than a dozen and no more than 50. Larger schools are often comprised of younger fish. Insatiable insectivores, they will tear apart any invertebrate unfortunate enough to fall in the water or get in their way. The jaws are strong enough, and the teeth (particularly the enscissors) sharp enough to bite a clean hole out of most organisms. A nip from a larger individual is capable of drawing blood.

    These Characins have no special requirements when it comes to water conditions. A neutral pH and common water temperature will suffice. They are hardy fish that thrive under most conditions.

    Breeding has only been accomplished several times in captivity and details are sketchy.
     
    #14 Lupin, Oct 7, 2008
    Last edited: Oct 7, 2008
  15. Lupin

    Lupin Registered Member

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    Pink-Tailed Chalceus (Chalceus macrolepidota)

    Chalceus macrolepidota
    Common Name:
    Pink-Tailed Chalceus
    Care Level: moderately easy
    Size: 10 inches
    pH Range: 6.0-7.0
    Temperature Range: 22-27 degrees Celsius (72-82° F)
    Origin: The Amazon, Guianas and Surinam
    Temperament: moderately peaceful
    Compatible Tankmates:
    As these are predatory schooling fish, they are best kept with large characins and even Exodon paradoxus. Catfish are often ignored provided these are large enough to avoid predation.
    Diet:
    Give them food, and lots of it, in the form of live insects and worms. They require plentiful amounts (to put it in prospective, a 2" specimen can completely devour a full grown cricket bite by bite). Live fish are also avidly eaten. Once in a while it is good to give them vegetable matter in the form of oatmeal, or cucumber. The aquarium should have plenty of swimming space and areas of cover and shade. Do not keep these fish with other fish smaller than half their size, for they will surely be eaten bite by bite.
    Tank Size for Adult: 75g for a group of 3 adults
    Narrative:
    The Pink-tailed Characin is a predatory fish that should not be kept with smaller fish. This is a slender, silver fish with pink\red fins. The body is covered with large scales that can be easily plucked.

    This fish shoals near the surface in search of food. They are carnivorous and like a diet of meat and live foods, but can also be adapted to eat pelleted foods. They thrive in aquariums provided they are kept in large tanks with clean water and a good water current. Keep the tank covered, as the Pink-tailed Characin is a great jumper. This fish scares easily, and so dim light levels with floating plants are recommended. They will not bother plants.

    The Pink-tailed Characin has been bred in Japan and Hong Kong. A 19-year-old specimen was recorded at the Hellabrunn zoo in Munich, West Germany. In South America this is a food fish.
     
  16. Lupin

    Lupin Registered Member

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    Adonis Tetra (Lepidarchus adonis)

    Lepidarchus adonis
    Common Name:
    Adonis Tetra
    Care Level: moderately difficult
    Size: 1 inch
    pH Range: 6.0-7.0
    Temperature Range: 22-25 degrees Celsius (72-77° F)
    Origin: Western Africa
    Temperament: peaceful
    Compatible Tankmates: Best kept in small community setups where fish will not easily prey on them. Corydoras pygmaeus, Corydoras habrosus and ember tetras (Hyphessobrycon amandae) to name a few examples are fine tankmates.
    Diet: Insectivorous.
    Tank Size for Adult: 5g for a group of 5-6.
    Narrative:
    A small Characin that should be kept in small groups of five or six. It's preference of an acidic pH keep it from being seen in more community tanks. The water should be soft, with the aquarium being heavily planted.
     
  17. Lupin

    Lupin Registered Member

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    Striped Anostomus (Anostomus anostomus)

    Anostomus anostomus
    Common Name: Striped Anostomus
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 7 inches
    pH Range: 5.8-7.8
    Temperature Range: 22-27 degrees Celsius (72-82° F)
    Origin: Upper Amazon
    Temperament: peaceful to moderately aggressive
    Compatible Tankmates:
    They are suitable in a community tank with silver dollars, plecos, flagtail catfish and other peaceful characins.
    Diet:
    The Striped Anostomus is herbivorous and so should be fed accordingly. Recommended foods are blanched lettuce, algae tablets, peas, and some live foods.
    Tank Size for Adult: 55g for an adult.
    Narrative:
    The Anostomus is an elongated characin, closely related to the Leporinus and Headstander. The body is striped horizontally with alternating yellow and dark stripes. Fins are transparent, the dorsal and caudal fins having some red to them. The fish's main defense is its speed, which is indicated by its heavily forked tail and streamlined body. Keep in large groups or they will fight.

    These fish should be kept in schools, in a large aquarium that provides plenty of free-swimming space. Driftwood and plants with tough foliage are also recommended. Anostomuses spend much of their time slanted with their head pointed down and their tail up in the air.

    This fish is hardy and can live in a wide variety of water values such as a pH anywhere between 5.8-7.8. Use a neutral pH with a dGH of up to 20. Temperature range should be kept in the common area of 72-82 degrees F.

    Little is known about the breeding habits of the Anostomus but it has been achieved.
     
    #17 Lupin, Oct 7, 2008
    Last edited: Oct 16, 2008
  18. Lupin

    Lupin Registered Member

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    Benny Tetra (Creagrutus beni)

    Creagrutus beni
    Common Name: Benny Tetra
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 2.5 inches
    pH Range: 6.0-7.0
    Temperature Range: 22-27 degrees Celsius (72-79° F)
    Origin: Lakes of Peru, Bolivia, Brazil and the Amazon basin
    Temperament: peaceful
    Compatible Tankmates:
    They are suitable in a community tank with silver dollars, plecos, flagtail catfish and other peaceful characins.
    Diet: Omnivorous.
    Tank Size for Adult: 20g for a group of 6.
    Narrative:
    A small community fish that should be kept in groups of five or more. The water should be slightly acidic to neutral, and the aquarium should be stocked with plants and other small fish.
     
    #18 Lupin, Oct 7, 2008
    Last edited: Oct 7, 2008
  19. Lupin

    Lupin Registered Member

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    Black Diamond Gold Piranha (Serrasalmus spilopleura)

    Serrasalmus spilopleura
    Common Name: Black Diamond Gold Piranha
    Care Level: moderately difficult
    Size: 11 inches
    pH Range: 6.2-6.8
    Temperature Range: 22-25 degrees Celsius (72-77° F)
    Origin: Widespread through the Amazon basin
    Temperament: aggressive
    Compatible Tankmates:
    These are best kept by themselves only.
    Diet: Carnivorous.
    Tank Size for Adult: 75g for an adult.
    Narrative:
    Serrasalmus spilopleura is a rare Piranha with several common names. The fish is a model definition of fin-nipper; any S. spilopleura trusted with other fishes will surely make a meal of their fins and scales. This species is said to be less aggressive than S. nattereri and S. rhombeus.

    If you are fortunate enough to purchase one of these gems, keep it alone. Unlike other Piranha species, S. spilopleura is a loner and will attack even its own kind. The aquarium must be large and provided with many caves and hiding places. A powerful filtration system is required.

    These Piranhas are carnivorous and must be fed accordingly. Chunks of beef heart are relished, as are earthworms and most other types of meat.

    S. spilopleura will tolerate a wide range of water conditions in the aquarium. An acidic pH of 6.2-6.8 is appreciated, along with a general hardness range of 5-20 dH.

    Breeding has been accomplished in such public aquariums as the Duisburg Aquarium in Germany and the Cincinnati Zoo. Reports say the fish spawn among roots of plants, the eggs hatching just days later. Just over a week later the fry become free-swimming and can be fed newly-hatched brine shrimp.
    Related Article: Report on Serrasalmus spilopleura
     
    #19 Lupin, Oct 7, 2008
    Last edited: Oct 16, 2008
  20. Lupin

    Lupin Registered Member

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    Black Skirt Tetra (Gymnocorymbus ternetzi)

    Gymnocorymbus ternetzi
    Common Name: Black Skirt Tetra
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 2 inches
    pH Range: 6.5-7.0
    Temperature Range: 22-25 degrees Celsius (72-77° F)
    Origin: Paraguay and Guapore river basins
    Temperament: peaceful
    Compatible Tankmates: Community setups.
    Diet: Carnivorous.
    Tank Size for Adult: 20g for a group of 6.
    Narrative:
    The Blackskirt is a small sized fish that almost always establishes and maintains a pecking order within its own species' group. The body is silver with dark bands running vertically. The anal fin is large and black. A long-finned variety is also available. Mature fish may be a faded gray.

    Blackskirts should be kept in the same manner as most other tetra species; in schools of five or more. Tank size should not be of concern for such a small fish, and the aquarium should be decorated with plants and bogwood.

    Blackskirts move with great speed as they pick off food from the surface. They are omnivorous and thus enjoy both live and vegetable-based foods.

    These Characins have no special requirements when it comes to water conditions. A neutral pH and common water temperature will suffice. They are hardy fish that thrive under most conditions.

    Blackskirts are egg scatterers that have been successfully bred in the aquarium. Males have a more narrow and sharper dorsal fin than females. The female lays her eggs amongst plants, and should then be removed from the tank along with the male or else they may eat the eggs. The fry hatch in 24 hours and should be fed newly hatched Brine Shrimp.
     

    Attached Files:

    #20 Lupin, Oct 7, 2008
    Last edited: Oct 9, 2008

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