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  1. #41
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    Black Phantom Tetra (Megalamphodus megalopterus)

    Scientific Name: Megalamphodus megalopterus
    Common Name: Black Phantom Tetra
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 1.75 inches
    pH Range: 6.0-7.5
    Temperature Range: 22-28 degrees Celsius (72-82° F)
    Origin: Brazil
    Temperament: peaceful
    Compatible Tankmates:
    They make a great addition to the community aquarium. It is highly recommended to keep these fish in schools of six or more. The aquarium should be dimly lit with floating plants and driftwood if available. These fish are only to be kept with other smaller fishes such as other tetra species and corydoras.
    Diet:
    Omnivorous.
    Tank Size for Adult: 15g for a group of 8.
    Narrative:
    An attractive and peaceful member of the tetra family, Black Phantoms make an stunning contrast fish to their red hued cousins such as the Red Phantom, Jewel, or Serpae tetras. Their flat oval body is silvery gray with a distinctive splash of black edged in white just behind the gills. The fins of the male are edged in black, while the fins of females have a reddish hue which somtimes causes them to be confused with other species of tetras.

    References: www.freshaquarium.about.com
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    Hakuna Matata! What a wonderful phrase!
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    But I will love you until the end of time!





  2. #42
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    Emperor Tetra (Nematobrycon palmeri)

    Scientific Name: Nematobrycon palmeri
    Common Name: Emperor Tetra
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 1.75 inches
    pH Range: 6.0-7.5
    Temperature Range: 22-28 degrees Celsius (72-82° F)
    Origin: Brazil
    Temperament: peaceful
    Compatible Tankmates:
    They make a great addition to the community aquarium. It is highly recommended to keep these fish in schools of six or more. The aquarium should be dimly lit with floating plants and driftwood if available. These fish are only to be kept with other smaller fishes such as other tetra species and corydoras.
    Diet:
    Omnivorous.
    Tank Size for Adult: 15g for a group of 8.
    Narrative:
    Emperor tetras are well known for their elegant appearance due to their flamboyant finnage. They have been around the aquarium trade for almost forty years already and are among the most popular in their family.

    The dorsal and caudal fins of the male are noticeably longer and more pointed than the female. Also quite noticeable in the male, is an extended ray in the middle of the caudal fin that gives the tail the appearance of a trident. The female is smaller, and plumper in the body than the male.

    Fins of both sexes have a yellow hue, and are edged in black on the outer periphery, and red where the fin meets the body. The body of the fish is blue-gray with mauve tones, and displays an almost iridescent sheen. A dark stripe runs horizontally from mouth to tail. The body is lighter in color below the stripe.

    Emperors favor dense vegetation and subdued lighting that mimics the Colombian rivers from which they originate. Dark substrate, and a heavily planted tank will go far to make them feel at home. Although peat filtration is often recommended, they will thrive in even moderately hard water as long as it is changed frequently to maintain purity.

    Emperor tetras have long been confused with the new species, kerri tetra (Inpaichthys kerri) due to almost similar appearance. The only way to distinguish them easily is emperor tetras lack the adipose fin found between the dorsal and caudal fins which the kerri tetras have.

    Reference:
    http://freshaquarium.about.com/
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    Last edited by Lupin; 10-14-2008 at 10:39 PM.
    Hakuna Matata! What a wonderful phrase!
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    But I will love you until the end of time!



  3. #43
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    Dwarf Redfin Rasbora (Boraras brigittae)

    Scientific Name: Boraras brigittae
    Common Name: Dwarf Redfin Rasbora
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 1.25 inch
    pH Range: 6.0-7.5
    Temperature Range: 22-28 degrees Celsius (72-82° F)
    Origin: Indonesia
    Temperament: peaceful
    Compatible Tankmates:
    They make a great addition to the community aquarium although best kept in a species tank. It is highly recommended to keep these fish in schools of six or more. The aquarium should be dimly lit with floating plants and driftwood if available. These fish are only to be kept with other smaller fishes such as other tetra species and corydoras.
    Diet:
    Omnivorous.
    Tank Size for Adult: 10g for a group of 15.
    Narrative:
    The rasbora genus Boraras is a small group of very small fish. None of them are over 1 1/4 inches in length at maximum size; and the redfin dwarf rasbora (Boraras brigittae) is one of the smallest members of the gigantic family Cyprinidae (the carps and minnows). They all are colorful, and each species is interesting in its own right. They make excellent members of either a dedicated species tank or a tiny fish community tank, and are perfect residents for one of the desktop aquaria that are so popular now. None of them will do well in community tanks with large or boisterous fish. In such situations, they spend all of their time hiding and trying to avoid being eaten.

    Boraras brigittae is a stunning little fish. It has a solid greenish-black stripe down the lateral line, over which is a bright red/orange stripe. The line ends in a separate wedge-shaped black dot at the base of the caudal fin in both species. Some males have deep red coloration throughout their bodies, which intensifies with age. Males have bright red fins outlined in black, and females have pale pink/orange fins and lack the deep red on their flanks, with only a hint of pale orange in the body. At least with my fish, the dominant male B. brigittae developed an almost glowing bright red sheen over the entire body but only when he reached about one year old. The subdominant males don't display this glowing coloration.

    Several of the Boraras species are often confused with one another in the trade. You can often find B. uropthalmoides being sold as B. brigittae. These are the two species of Boraras that are similar, but when one learns the differences, they are easily distinguishable. There appear to be several populations of B. uropthalmoides, and some are more colorful, some less so. Boraras brigittae are very different fish and there is no way of confusing even the females. Boraras. Brigittae are much larger (relatively speaking, of course) at about 1 1/8 inches, nearly twice the size of adult B. uropthalmoides, which reach just over three-fourths of an inch. While the B. brigittae have a bright red or orange stripe over the lateral stripe, B. uropthalmoides have a green or gold stripe running over that stripe, depending on the population. In addition, the spot on the caudal peduncle is wedge shaped in B. brigittae, but this spot is round in B. uropthalmoides.

    Reference: www.aquariumfish.com
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    Hakuna Matata! What a wonderful phrase!
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  4. #44
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    Dwarf Spotted Rasbora (Boraras maculatus)

    Scientific Name: Boraras maculatus
    Common Name: Dwarf Spotted Rasbora, Pygmy Rasbora
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 1 inch
    pH Range: 5.8-6.3
    Temperature Range: 23-26 degrees Celsius (75-79° F)
    Origin: Indonesia , Western Malaysia, Singapore
    Temperament: peaceful
    Compatible Tankmates:
    They make a great addition to the community aquarium although best kept in a species tank. It is highly recommended to keep these fish in schools of six or more. The aquarium should be dimly lit with floating plants and driftwood if available. These fish are only to be kept with other smaller fishes such as other tetra species and corydoras.
    Diet:
    Omnivorous.
    Tank Size for Adult: 10g for a group of 15.
    Narrative:
    The rasbora genus Boraras is a small group of very small fish. None of them are over 1 1/4 inches in length at maximum size; and the dwarf spotted rasbora (Boraras maculatus) is one of the smallest members of the gigantic family Cyprinidae (the carps and minnows). They all are colorful, and each species is interesting in its own right. They make excellent members of either a dedicated species tank or a tiny fish community tank, and are perfect residents for one of the desktop aquaria that are so popular now. None of them will do well in community tanks with large or boisterous fish. In such situations, they spend all of their time hiding and trying to avoid being eaten.

    Reference:
    www.aquariumfish.com
    www.thatfishshop.com
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    Hakuna Matata! What a wonderful phrase!
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    But I will love you until the end of time!



  5. #45
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    Australian Arowana (Scleropages jardinii)

    Scientific Name: Scleropages jardinii
    Common Name: Australian Pearl Arowana, Saratoga Jardini, Gulf Saratoga
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 30 inches
    pH Range: 7.0-7.5
    Temperature Range: 23-30 degrees Celsius (75-86° F)
    Origin: Jardine and Adelaide Rivers, New Guinea, Australia
    Temperament: extremely aggressive
    Compatible Tankmates:
    Compatible tankmates are basically selected by trial and error. Due to their extremely aggressive nature as they mature, they are best kept by themselves rather than placing any fish within their territory at all. Only a few fish such as giant gouramis, peacock bass and clown knifefish have been known to live unscathed with the jardini arowana although do not keep your hopes up that they will live together permanently.

    It has been known that if their tank is provided with several hiding places especially driftwoods and vegetation, aggression can be minimized although do not expect your community tank to last while the jardini arowan is around.
    Diet:
    Like other species of arowanas, jardini arowanas are carnivorous often relishing live and frozen stuff. They should be weaned on commercial foods at a young age due to their picky nature which may simply be very frustrating for the owner.
    Tank Size for Adult: 125g.
    Narrative:
    Jardini arowanas are one of the meanest specimens of their family. They are commonly available in the aquarium trade and have been bred in the Far East thus relieving stress of the poaching in their native habitats. They are also considered legal in many areas and are often good substitutes to the Asian arowanas which are listed by CITES under endangered status currently due to high demand and poaching in their native habitats.

    This species (altogether with the Scleropages leichardti) were once known as barramundis although this practice has been widely discouraged since then due to the confusion it has wrought to the true barramundis (Lates calcarifer). The genus Scleropages means hard leaves which is in reference to their scales. The species Scleropages jardinii after the collector, Mr. F. Jardine.

    Their bodies are very laterally compressed with a large upturned mouth, large scales and barbels on their lower lips. To differentiate between the third species of the genus, the Asian arowana (Scleropages formosus), the number of scales in the lateral line is 32-35 in S. leichardti and S. jardinii while S. formosus has only 21-25. The saratogas are greenish-grey to brown on the back and coppery gold (S. jardinii) or silvery green (S. leichardti) on the flanks. One to three red-orange spots can be found on each scale of S. leichardti, while S. jardini appears to have minimal body spots, the majority of these scale spots appear to have fused creating line markings instead. The fin colours are similar to, or darker than its body colour. Both species have spots present on their fins and tail, with S. leichardti having numerous small spots-in-lines and S. jardini having less but larger spots. The spots may be yellow to orange to red for S. jardini, with spots usually red-orange for S. leichardti. The more northern species (S. jardini) commonly shows a pattern of squiggly lines and or dots on and bordering its gill plate, this is not present (to my knowledge) in the southern species (S. leichardti). Another characteristic of S. jardini is its head which slopes downward from it's back often making it's head look smaller in comparison to it's body. On the other hand S. leichardti shows no sloping head and is generally more level with it's back.

    Reference:
    http://www.aquariumhobbyist.com/
    Last edited by Lupin; 10-15-2008 at 1:32 AM.
    Hakuna Matata! What a wonderful phrase!
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    But I will love you until the end of time!



  6. #46
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    Black Darter Tetra (Poecilocharax weitzmani)

    Scientific Name: Poecilocharax weitzmani
    Common Name: Black Darter Tetra
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 1.5 inch
    pH Range: 5.0-6.5
    Temperature Range: 23-30 degrees Celsius (75-86° F)
    Origin: Solimões, upper Negro, and upper Orinoco River basins
    Temperament: peaceful
    Compatible Tankmates:
    These are best kept by themselves.
    Diet:
    Carnivorous.
    Tank Size for Adult: 10g.
    Narrative:
    Black darter tetras have small elongated and slender body with a bold lateral black line running from the gills to the caudal fin. The rest of the body is pale yellow-brown and slightly iridescent.

    These fish grow to no more than 4 cm and are best suited in a heavily planted tank by themselves. They are found in the blackwaters of Solimões, upper Negro, and upper Orinoco River basins. Water conditions are best replicated similarly to their native habitat for best results.
    Hakuna Matata! What a wonderful phrase!
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  7. #47
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    Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare)

    Scientific Name: Pterophyllum scalare
    Common Name: Angelfish
    Care Level: easy to moderately difficult
    Size: 6 inches
    pH Range: 6.0-7.5
    Temperature Range: 24-30 degrees Celsius (76-86° F)
    Origin: Amazon river, Brazil
    Temperament: peaceful
    Compatible Tankmates:
    Angels are in general peaceful for cichlids and are suitable for community setups although be very careful in selecting their tankmates as they will often prey upon fish that will fit their mouths especially neon tetras which are their natural food in the wild.
    Diet:
    Omnivorous. They will eat anything you can provide them including commercial foods, bloodworms, earthworms and mosquito larva.
    Tank Size for Adult: 20g.
    Narrative:
    Angelfish are one of the most popular cichlids in the aquarium trade. They have been around the aquarium trade for several decades already. They are often seen gracing the tank with their flamboyant fins. These fish are generally peaceful although they can often be aggressive during feeding time and may outstrip every tankmate for food.

    Tall tanks are often best suited for these fish. The height must be at least 18 inches minimum. A 20g minimum is suggested for a breeding pair or a single adult but do make sure the dimensions provide ample space for them to swim around. The tank should be furnished with driftwood and heavy vegetation for them to seek refuge.

    In the wild, angels often have black to brown vertical bars which help them camouflage among the reeds. Their habitat, in reality, barely has plants and mostly dominated by hairgrass (Eleocharis vivapara) along with tree roots. They are often seen stalking among the tall reeds looking for prey which comprises of insects, small fish and other aquatic creatures that will fit their mouths.

    Angelfish have long been bred in captivity for decades so you will find that they are widely available around the trade in different strains ranging from the hardy koi, marble and zebra strains to the delicate double blacks. Genetics often play their role in the longevity of the angelfish strains. Veiltails and super veils are also widely available and require larger tanks than the minimum tank size given to provide space for them to be able to swim around well.

    These fish are not sexually dimorphic until they spawn. Try to start a small group of young angelfish to grow on and let them pair off. They are rather choosy about their partners. Once the angelfish become sexually matured, they begin to choose their partner and once satisfied, they start choosing a spawning site and harass other tankmates as they defend their new territory.

    Males are easily distinguished when you look at their vents which should be pointed and positioned forward whereas females have round edged vents and the vents are positioned backward. Anything else suggested to indicate their sexes such as humps on their heads and fins may not be perfectly accurate at all.

    Breeding is not that difficult at all. After they chose their spawning spot, the female then starts laying her eggs on the spot and the male tries to release his milt to be able to fertilize the eggs. Sometimes, first time spawners will eat their eggs so you need to be patient when this happens. It takes time before the angelfish learn how to take care of their eggs properly. Sometimes two females will also pair off, not knowing their genders so it is wise to remove one of the females and let her choose another candidate as her partner.
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    Last edited by Lupin; 10-16-2008 at 7:59 PM.
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  8. #48
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    Deep Angelfish (Pterophyllum altum)

    Scientific Name: Pterophyllum altum
    Common Name: Deep Angelfish
    Care Level: moderately difficult
    Size: 6 inches body diameter ; 15 inches dorsal and ventral fins height
    pH Range: 6.0-7.5
    Temperature Range: 24-30 degrees Celsius (76-86° F)
    Origin: Rio Orinoco and Rio Negro in Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia
    Temperament: peaceful
    Compatible Tankmates:
    Deep angelfish (Pterophyllum altum) are in general peaceful for cichlids and are suitable for community setups although be very careful in selecting their tankmates as they will often prey upon fish that will fit their mouths especially neon tetras which are their natural food in the wild.
    Diet:
    Omnivorous. Like the P. scalare, they will almost anything you can provide them provided these are in excellent health conditions.
    Tank Size for Adult: 75g.
    Narrative:
    Since the early 1990s, the P. scalare has long been bred in captivity and still until present, very popular with dozens of strains available. There are two other species that have not been given as much attention as the P. scalare.

    The word "altum" is a Latin word meaning "tall" and is quite appropriate for this species due to their body structure wherein their fins are unusually erect reaching 12-16 inches in height.

    Pterophyllum altum is a close relative to the common freshwater angelfish known as Pterophyllum scalare and can be found in a relatively large area around Rio Orinoco and Rio Negro in Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia. It has long been thought and it is still a popular myth, even among experts that the altum angelfish (Pterophyllum altum) only can be found in Rio Orinoco however this is proven incorrect by studies of specimens in different museums that has been collected in a much larger area.

    P. altum is easily distinguished from P. scalare by the sharp indentation just above their eyes, unusually erect dorsal and ventral fins and brown bars (rather than black which is the case for most P. scalare).

    The altum angelfish are not widely available in the trade and command a very high price as these are very sensitive to water conditions especially when not acclimated properly. They are often shipped in vast numbers that the mortality rate is often very high and only a handful reach the dealer's tank alive although a few may succumb later on due to the stress factors brought by the transport. Add to that the fact these have never been bred in captivity at all.

    Claims that these fish have been bred in captivity have yet to be proven true. Most of the time, the resulting angels claimed to be pure P. altum are actually crosses of P. scalare and P. altum rather than the pure specimen itself. Peruvian scalare angelfish are also sold as P. altum so you must be cautious when buying these fish to make sure you are not paying a high price for a wrong specimen.

    Keeping these fish successfully is rewarding but may require efforts on your part. You must ensure the fish is acclimated properly and carefully as these are wild specimens that may be unable to tolerate the water conditions different from their native habitat. Tall tanks are recommended and should be no shorter than 24 inches. The tank must be furnished heavily with driftwoods and vegetative growth. The use of subdued lighting along with tannins are greatly suggested as these are very shy fish that will not tolerate bright lighting at all.

    These fish are far different from P. scalare. The choice of tankmates may be more limited as their jaw structure is far wider and permits them to swallow even fish larger than how their mouths appear. These are best kept with fish that will not fit their mouths such as bronchis, plecos, discus, rams, deep-bodied tetras and apistogrammas.

    Reference:
    www.finarama.com
    www.aquaticcommunity.com
    Last edited by Lupin; 10-15-2008 at 3:32 AM.
    Hakuna Matata! What a wonderful phrase!
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  9. #49
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    Longnosed Angelfish (Pterophyllum leopoldi)

    Scientific Name: Pterophyllum leopoldi
    Common Name: Longnosed Angelfish (formerly Pterophyllum dumerilli)
    Care Level: easy
    Size: 6 inches body diameter ; 15 inches dorsal and ventral fins height
    pH Range: 6.0-7.5
    Temperature Range: 24-30 degrees Celsius (76-86° F)
    Origin: Solimões River, Amazon River, and Rupununi River
    Temperament: peaceful
    Compatible Tankmates:
    Longnosed angelfish (Pterophyllum leopoldi) usually have nastier temperament compared to the other two angelfish. They may be suited i community setups but you have to carefully select their tankmates as they may become a menace and even eat small fish that fit their mouths.
    Diet:
    Omnivorous. Like the P. scalare and P. altum, they will almost anything you can provide them provided these are in excellent health conditions.
    Tank Size for Adult: 20g.
    Narrative:
    Compared to the P. altum, these fish are found to be rather easy to keep. These are distinguished from the other two species by their slightly more elongated body structure and the black band which goes through the fish's eye does not sweep backwards towards the dorsal fin (as seen in P. scalare), but rather goes straight over the head and joins up on the other side. These are rarely seen in captivity so if you have an opportunity to grab these fish, be sure to be well prepared before you grab a bunch of these fish. They can be very expensive as well.

    Reference:
    www.finarama.com
    www.answers.com
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    Last edited by Lupin; 10-16-2008 at 8:04 PM.
    Hakuna Matata! What a wonderful phrase!
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    And stars may collide,
    But I will love you until the end of time!



  10. #50
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    Discus (Symphysodon aequifasciatus)

    Scientific Name: Symphysodon aequifasciatus
    Common Name: Discus
    Care Level: easy to moderately difficult
    Size: 7-8 inches
    pH Range: 6.0-7.5
    Temperature Range: 28-30 degrees Celsius (82-86° F)
    Origin: Amazon, Brazil
    Temperament: peaceful
    Compatible Tankmates:
    These are suitable for community setups although care must be taken when selecting their tankmates. These fish are easily stressed so boisterous tankmates must be avoided. Similarly, fish that have a tendency to nip others' fins should not be kept together with this fish.
    Diet:
    Omnivorous. Discus in excellent health conditions will eat almost anything although avoid excessive meaty foods which may result in digestive upsets as proteins are not easily digested by their body system.
    Tank Size for Adult: 20g for a pair.
    Narrative:
    Discus is considered the king of all the aquarium fish due to their elegance and regal movement. These are regarded as the most beautiful of all tropical fish. For decades, these have been bred to develop dozens of strains to satisfy the hobbyists wishing to keep these fish.

    Discus hail from Amazon basin of Brazil and can be found swimming together with the angelfish. For a fish with deep and laterally compressed body, they can be found in shallow portions of the rivers often stalking amongst the tall reeds and tree roots looking for prey. Water there has subdued lighting due to the tannic acids released by decaying vegetative matter found on the forest floors. The water has very little movements thus these fish are unable to tolerate any currents as dictated by their body structure.

    Discus can reach almost 8 inches in body diameter so deep tanks are recommended when attempting to keep a group. The tanks must be furnished with driftwoods and heavy plant matter for them to be able to seek refuge. The temperature must be kept steady at 28-30 degrees Celsius as they become more vulnerable to pathogens if kept in temperature lower than what is required.

    For beginners, it is best to obtain your fish from local breeders rather than your local fish store as the quality of the stocks you get are guaranteed to be in excellent health condition compared to the ones found in your local fish store. It is generally recommended to keep young discus (with body size no bigger than four inches) in barebottom tanks where maintenance is much easier as they require plenty of feedings on daily basis and water changes to compensate for the amount of wastes produced as these fish can easily stunt their growth if their requirements are not met properly.

    Most people keep discus in planted tanks where they look quite stunning as they parade around the tank in a regal manner. However, it must be noted most plants lack tolerance for high temperature. This is also similarly applicable to tankmates. Boisterous and nippy tankmates are best avoided. Angelfish, rams, apistogrammas, corydoras and tetras generally make fine additions provided the selected tankmates can tolerate 28 degrees Celsius and above.

    Discus are not sexually dimorphic so sexing is not possible until spawning stage. Discus tend to be choosy in picking their tankmates so allow the juveniles to grow and as they grow, they begin to select their partners and eventually pair off as they become sexually matured. Like the angelfish, males are distinguished by their pointed ovipositors which are positioned forward whereas females have round ovipositors positioned backward.

    Breeding is not the same as the angelfish as they are a little more difficult to breed. After they chose their spawning spot, the female then starts laying her eggs on the spot and the male tries to release his milt to be able to fertilize the eggs. Sometimes, first time spawners will eat their eggs so you need to be patient when this happens. It takes time before the discus learn how to take care of their eggs properly. Most breeders use upturned terracotta pots when breeding these fish. Other alternatives are PVC pipes and slates. The resulting fry should never be removed from their parents as they rely on their parents' slime coats in order to grow. This mistake was what had baffled some breeders in the 1980s thus leading to frustrating experiences until the actual feeding behavior was discovered.
    Last edited by Lupin; 10-15-2008 at 4:14 AM.
    Hakuna Matata! What a wonderful phrase!
    Storm clouds may gather,
    And stars may collide,
    But I will love you until the end of time!



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