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  1. #41
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    Acidosis/Alkalosis
    Symptoms:
    Slimy skin (milky and cloudy), bleeding sores, thick cloudy coatings on the eyes, brownish coating on the gills, fish may dart and jump around the aquarium, jerky movements.

    Causes:
    Acidosis: Very low pH and hardness levels usually associated with pH swings.

    Alkalosis: Fluctuation of pH and hardness level.

    Treatment:
    Acidosis: Check pH and carbonate hardness. Increase the pH and stabilize the carbonate hardness using baking soda, crushed corals, etc.

    Alkalosis: Reduce the pH and hardness levels with the use of reverse-osmosis (RO) water and tannic acids by peat or driftwood.
    Hakuna Matata! What a wonderful phrase!
    Storm clouds may gather,
    And stars may collide,
    But I will love you until the end of time!





  2. #42
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    Cloudy Eyes
    Symptoms:
    Eyes appearing to have cloudy white or grey "haze" that may cause blindness.

    Causes:
    Poor water quality, malnutrition, severe stress, overproduction of slime coating, cataracts, old age

    Treatment:
    I don't usually recommend the use of antibiotics. Frequent water changes are strictly necessary to improve water quality. It will usually clear up on its own if the water quality has improved. Be sure to provide your fish varied diet to improve its resistance against diseases.
    Hakuna Matata! What a wonderful phrase!
    Storm clouds may gather,
    And stars may collide,
    But I will love you until the end of time!



  3. #43
    Moderator Lupin's Avatar
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    Fish Leech (Piscicola geometra)
    Symptoms:
    Extreme lethargy, paling or darkening of colour, fish leech can be seen attached to the fish's body

    Description:
    Fish leech, in comparison to fish lice and anchorworms, are true parasites. They bite into the fish and feed off the fluid and tissue causing severe damage, finally leading to certain death if left unchecked.

    As Dieter Untergasser had previously stated in regards to the subject about the Spring Virosis, fish leeches, along with other blood-sucking parasites, serve as vectors in the transmission of the disease, Spring Virosis.

    According to Duncan Griffiths, while the leech is a true parasite, it differs from anchor worm and the fish louse in one major aspect: Piscicola geometra does not need to live on the koi, it merely attaches to the host to feed and then, once gorged, it leaves the host and returns only to feed. They are very adept swimmers, and if you study them before you nuke them they can be seen targeting their host from across a pond and swimming quite strongly to their victim.

    The leech is also oviparous and produces eggs. Like Argulus, a leech has to leave the host to perform the egg laying function in the weeds or on the pond bottom or sides. The complete life cycle can take up to 30 days, the most common route of infection is via untreated plants introduced to the pond and birds, very rare in incoming fish.

    Fish leech measures several centimeters in length and can be seen clearly attached to a fish.

    Treatment:
    Masoten, Malathion, salt dip, Sera Cyprinopur

    Removing fish leeches by pulling is usually not recommended as it can lead to injury to the fish.

    1. Dimilin Powder
    The only known method of killing this parasite, without killing the fish is DIMILIN POWDER which can be used safely at any water temperature and has an action of sterilizing the adult and larval stages of this parasite which insures that all eggs produced, after the application of Dimilin, will not hatch.

    Method: Dimilin Powder at the rate of 1 gram per ton of pond water. Measure out the quantity required and mix in a plastic bucket with pond water ensuring that the powder is dissolved then add to the pond in the previous manner. A second dosage may be needed to ensure that the life cycle of the anchor worm has been halted. After this second application the dead adults, which will still be hanging from the fish, can be removed using tweezers but making sure that the hooks, as well as the tail of the anchor worm are removed and then apply a proprietary topical dressing to prevent a secondary infection.

    2. Sera Cyprinopur
    Follow the instructions accordingly. Use Sera Baktopur to treat the wounds of the fish after the anchor worms have been pulled out. When pulling anchor worms out of the fish, firmly grasp the tweezers near its base where it is burying to the skin and quickly pull it out.

    3. Coumaphos
    Coumaphos is an extremely dangerous substance so this may be best administered by mixing one gram on a twenty liter bucket and grabbing at least a liter which makes up for a 5% solution for every 150 gallons of water.

    This particular treatment may be best avoided however and try safer options such as dimilin instead.

    4. Jungle Anchors Away
    Change 25% of the pond water before use.

    Use one teaspoon (5 grams) to 40 US gallons. Maintain strong aeration during treatment. Clean measuring device before every use.
    Content treats 4,520 US gallons. If needed, safely treat up to three times. Wait six days between treatments. Change 25% of the water before each treatment. Remove activated carbon during use.

    Data retrieved from http://www.drsfostersmith.com/.

    5. Trichlorfon
    Follow instructions carefully. Trichlorfon is available as Masoten, Metriphonate, Dylox, Neguvon, etc.

    Last edited by Lupin; 08-31-2009 at 7:25 PM.
    Hakuna Matata! What a wonderful phrase!
    Storm clouds may gather,
    And stars may collide,
    But I will love you until the end of time!



  4. #44
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    Anchorworm (Lernaea elegans)
    Description:
    The crustacean Lernaea is often called "anchorworm" by aquarists as it anchors deeply in the fish skin with its branched suction organ and has an elongated body without visible limbs. At the back end, there are two sac-like outgrowths where eggs develop.

    It takes the eggs between several days and and two weeks to attain maturity. Then they fall off and the larvae hatch. The mother crustacean dies and is repelled from the fish tissue after the eggs have fallen off. The laravae are also parasites and go to the gills of the fish to suck blood. As larvae, they attain sexual maturity there. After mating, the female larvae leave the fish and swim around as planktonic organisms for a short time. Then they find a host and bore their way into its skin.

    Treatment:
    1. Dimilin Powder
    The only known method of killing this parasite, without killing the fish is DIMILIN POWDER which can be used safely at any water temperature and has an action of sterilizing the adult and larval stages of this parasite which insures that all eggs produced, after the application of Dimilin, will not hatch.

    Method: Dimilin Powder at the rate of 1 gram per ton of pond water. Measure out the quantity required and mix in a plastic bucket with pond water ensuring that the powder is dissolved then add to the pond in the previous manner. A second dosage may be needed to ensure that the life cycle of the anchor worm has been halted. After this second application the dead adults, which will still be hanging from the fish, can be removed using tweezers but making sure that the hooks, as well as the tail of the anchor worm are removed and then apply a proprietary topical dressing to prevent a secondary infection.

    Note
    Dimilin also goes under the name diflubenzuron.

    2. Potassium Permanganate
    There is another way of removing anchor worm but more care has to be taken when removing all parts of the anchor worm which is to mix a strong solution of potassium permanganate crystals of 1 gram into 25 mls of hot water. Mix well until dissolved and then dip the tweezers into this solution prior to the removal of the anchor worm, once the solution touches the body, the anchor worm releases its grip immediately and it can then be lifted clear of the fish and the water. Wipe the end of the tweezers on a clean tissue to remove all traces before attempting to remove another anchor worm.

    3. Sera Cyprinopur
    Follow the instructions accordingly. Use Sera Baktopur to treat the wounds of the fish after the anchor worms have been pulled out. When pulling anchor worms out of the fish, firmly grasp the tweezers near its base where it is burying to the skin and quickly pull it out.



    4. Coumaphos
    Coumaphos is an extremely dangerous substance so this may be best administered by mixing one gram on a twenty liter bucket and grabbing at least a liter which makes up for a 5% solution for every 150 gallons of water.

    This particular treatment may be best avoided however and try safer options such as dimilin instead.

    5. Jungle Anchors Away
    Change 25% of the pond water before use.


    Use one teaspoon (5 grams) to 40 US gallons. Maintain strong aeration during treatment. Clean measuring device before every use.
    Content treats 4,520 US gallons. If needed, safely treat up to three times. Wait six days between treatments. Change 25% of the water before each treatment. Remove activated carbon during use.

    Data retrieved from http://www.drsfostersmith.com/.

    6. Trichlorfon
    Follow instructions carefully. Trichlorfon is available as Masoten, Metriphonate, Dylox, Neguvon, etc.
    Last edited by Lupin; 02-27-2010 at 8:23 AM.
    Hakuna Matata! What a wonderful phrase!
    Storm clouds may gather,
    And stars may collide,
    But I will love you until the end of time!



  5. #45
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    Fish Lice (Argulus)
    Description:
    A major threat in a pond or tank
    Argulus, or fish lice, represent a major threat to fish health; both as a result of direct tissue damage and secondary infections. Fish lice are one of the biggest parasites (5-10 mm) and visible with the naked eye.

    Argulus feed by first inserting a pre-oral sting which injects digestive enzymes into the body. They then suck out the liquidised body fluids with their proboscis-like mouth. Feeding can take place on the skin or in the gills.

    This feeding activity causes intense irritation. Fish are damaged by the constant piercing of the skin by the stylet and there is often localised inflammation. The other danger is that opportunistic bacteria such as Aeromonas or Pseudomonas sometimes infect these damaged areas leading to skin ulcers and gill disease. It is also believed that the stylus may occasionally ?inject? viruses and bacteria into the fish. The various spines, suckers and hooks that lice use for attachment may also cause additional tissue damage. So all-in-all a thoroughly nasty parasite!

    In addition to physical damage, affected fish are subjected to severe stress, which often leads to secondary parasite infestations such as white-spot and Costia. This type of combined attack on stressed and often weakened fish can result in high numbers of fatalities.

    So quite clearly, even finding one louse warrants immediate treatment and a follow up examination to check for secondary health problems

    Identification
    Biologically, Argulus are crustacean parasites in the subphylum Crustacea - which means they are grouped along with shrimps, prawns and water fleas etc. Animals in this group have a rigid or semi-rigid chitin exoskeleton, which has to be moulted as they grow larger. They are in the class Branchiura, a group of crustaceans with very similar features; all branchiurians are fish parasites.

    Although it is easy to spot lice when you know they are there, they are easy to miss in the rush to take skin scrapes. To the naked eye they appear as very small dark spots that are easy to overlook unless they move. They are often found in relatively sheltered areas behind the fins or around the head. They are usually easier to spot on fins rather than the body, as they tend to show up more against a plain transparent background. Lice are oval-shaped and flat and capable of moving very quickly. In an aquarium, they can sometimes be seen swimming as they move from host to host.

    Fish with a heavy lice infestation will show a classic irritation response such as rubbing and flashing. At a later stage they will become lethargic. Affected fish may have focal red lesions on their body.

    The Life Cycle of Argulus
    As with most fish parasites, they have a high reproductive potential. Mating takes place on the fish, after which the female swims away and lays eggs on plants and other submerged objects. When the eggs hatch the juvenile passes through several metamorphic changes as it develops into an adult. Around 4 days after hatching, the newly-hatched juvenile actively seeks a host and continues its development on the fish. The whole cycle takes between 30 – 100 days depending on temperature. The eggs can over-winter and hatch in spring as water temperatures increase. Adults can survive without a host for several days. Any treatment plan has to take account of emerging juveniles and therefore prevailing temperatures.

    Treatment:
    The most successful and effective treatments against lice are organophosphates. Using three treatments over the estimated life cycle of the parasite almost always eradicates lice. At typical summer pond temperatures of 20oC or higher, treatments at 10-day intervals will kill existing adults and juveniles as well as emerging juveniles. The down-side is that in the UK organophosphates are banned for use as fish disease treatments! They are still obtainable - but at a sky-high price!

    There are no other treatments currently available that are likely to be totally effective. There is some suggestion that using a chitin inhibitor such as dimilin will stop the juveniles developing as they moult their exoskeleton but there has been no real testing done on this proposal. (dimilin)

    More environmentally friendly alternatives are currently undergoing licensing evaluation tests for use in the food-fish industry. However, the draw back is again liable to be costs. Initial reports suggest that these alternatives may be better at controlling rather than eradicating lice.

    Suggested Treatments:
    1. Dimilin Powder
    The only known method of killing this parasite, without killing the fish is DIMILIN POWDER which can be used safely at any water temperature and has an action of sterilizing the adult and larval stages of this parasite which insures that all eggs produced, after the application of Dimilin, will not hatch.

    Method: Dimilin Powder at the rate of 1 gram per ton of pond water. Measure out the quantity required and mix in a plastic bucket with pond water ensuring that the powder is dissolved then add to the pond in the previous manner. A second dosage may be needed to ensure that the life cycle of the anchor worm has been halted. After this second application the dead adults, which will still be hanging from the fish, can be removed using tweezers but making sure that the hooks, as well as the tail of the anchor worm are removed and then apply a proprietary topical dressing to prevent a secondary infection.

    Note
    Dimilin also goes under the name diflubenzuron.

    2. Sera Cyprinopur
    Follow the instructions accordingly. Use Sera Baktopur to treat the wounds of the fish after the fish lice have been pulled out. When pulling fish lice out of the fish, firmly grasp the tweezers near its base where it is burying to the skin and quickly pull it out.

    3. Coumaphos
    Coumaphos is an extremely dangerous substance so this may be best administered by mixing one gram on a twenty liter bucket and grabbing at least a liter which makes up for a 5% solution for every 150 gallons of water.

    This particular treatment may be best avoided however and try safer options such as dimilin instead.

    4. Jungle Anchors Away
    Change 25% of the pond water before use.

    Use one teaspoon (5 grams) to 40 US gallons. Maintain strong aeration during treatment. Clean measuring device before every use.
    Content treats 4,520 US gallons. If needed, safely treat up to three times. Wait six days between treatments. Change 25% of the water before each treatment. Remove activated carbon during use.

    Data retrieved from http://www.drsfostersmith.com/.

    5. Trichlorfon
    Follow instructions carefully. Trichlorfon is available as Masoten, Metriphonate, Dylox, Neguvon, etc.

    Discussion Thread:
    http://www.monsterfishkeepers.com/fo...ad.php?t=42009



    Last edited by Lupin; 02-27-2010 at 8:23 AM.
    Hakuna Matata! What a wonderful phrase!
    Storm clouds may gather,
    And stars may collide,
    But I will love you until the end of time!



  6. #46
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    Ergasilus
    Symptoms:
    Fish jumped up and down, rubbing their bodies against the sides and bottom of the tank. The parasites are often big enough to be observed with the naked eye, or at least with a magnifying glass. Thread-like tentacles hanging from the gills are an indication of ergasilus.

    Description:
    The crustacean Ergasilus is a copepod just like Lernaea. It measures about 1.5 mm. The front antennae have transformed into pointed clasping hooks with which they puncture the skin of the gills in order to attach to the fish. Only the female Ergasilus live on fish as parasites whereas the males are planktonic organisms.

    Blood loss is high and secondary infections like gill rot are a frequent consequence. The crustaceans can only be introduced into an aquarium or a garden pond in their larva stage with live feeds from fish ponds.

    Reproduction in an aquarum is not probable as in most cases, you do not have both sexes in the aquarium simultaneously.

    Treatment:
    Dimilin [diflubenzuron], Larvadex, Lufenuron, Trichlorfon, Organophosphates

    1. Dimilin Powder
    The only known method of killing this parasite, without killing the fish is DIMILIN POWDER which can be used safely at any water temperature and has an action of sterilizing the adult and larval stages of this parasite which insures that all eggs produced, after the application of Dimilin, will not hatch.

    Method: Dimilin Powder at the rate of 1 gram per ton of pond water. Measure out the quantity required and mix in a plastic bucket with pond water ensuring that the powder is dissolved then add to the pond in the previous manner. A second dosage may be needed to ensure that the life cycle of the anchor worm has been halted. After this second application the dead adults, which will still be hanging from the fish, can be removed using tweezers but making sure that the hooks, as well as the tail of the anchor worm are removed and then apply a proprietary topical dressing to prevent a secondary infection.

    2. Sera Cyprinopur
    Follow the instructions accordingly. Use Sera Baktopur to treat the wounds of the fish after the anchor worms have been pulled out. When pulling anchor worms out of the fish, firmly grasp the tweezers near its base where it is burying to the skin and quickly pull it out.

    3. Coumaphos
    Coumaphos is an extremely dangerous substance so this may be best administered by mixing one gram on a twenty liter bucket and grabbing at least a liter which makes up for a 5% solution for every 150 gallons of water.

    This particular treatment may be best avoided however and try safer options such as dimilin instead.

    4. Jungle Anchors Away
    Change 25% of the pond water before use.

    Use one teaspoon (5 grams) to 40 US gallons. Maintain strong aeration during treatment. Clean measuring device before every use.
    Content treats 4,520 US gallons. If needed, safely treat up to three times. Wait six days between treatments. Change 25% of the water before each treatment. Remove activated carbon during use.

    Data retrieved from http://www.drsfostersmith.com/.

    5. Trichlorfon
    Follow instructions carefully. Trichlorfon is available as Masoten, Metriphonate, Dylox, Neguvon, etc.
    Last edited by Lupin; 08-31-2009 at 7:25 PM.
    Hakuna Matata! What a wonderful phrase!
    Storm clouds may gather,
    And stars may collide,
    But I will love you until the end of time!



  7. #47
    Moderator Lupin's Avatar
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    The above freshwater and saltwater diseases including disorders and others posted have been compiled for your convenience. Below are the references from where all information of the freshwater and saltwater diseases has been obtained.

    Bailey, Mary and Sandford, Gina, The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Aquarium Fish and Fish Care. Anness Publishing Limited Hermes House, 88-89 Blackfairs Road, London SE1 8HA

    Pandora’s Aquarium
    This site aims to improve its vast archives of diseases and photos. A lot of treatments are often suggested by this site.
    http://badmanstropicalfish.com/fish_...ification.html

    Sera guide: How to Keep Your Ornamental Fish Healthy
    Dieter Untergasser is the scientific consultant of the Sera company. The Sera guidebook was published along with his consultations, researches and experiments for the benefit of several aquarists most especially those who have patronized the Sera products for a long time.

    http://www.nfkc.info/
    A good website owned by the North Florida Koi Club. It contains details of diseases found mostly in the ponds.

    http://www.members.optushome.com.au/chelmon/index.htm
    A website “Home of the Rainbowfish” owned by Adrian Tappin which contains an excellent article regarding the Mycobacteriosis disease afflicting several known rainbowfish species especially other species outside the Melanotaenidae genus

    http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FA041
    A website under the ownership of the University of Florida. It has plenty of details on the diseases that surround the aquarium hobby.

    www.loaches.com
    A great source serving as a loach almanac even containing detailed instructions of how to use levamisole hydrochloride and other treatments properly when it comes to loaches.

    http://www.fishdoc.co.uk/
    This site contains vast details of diseases that surround the aquarium.

    http://www.fishvet.com/
    This site aims to provide more details of diseases as your reference tools.

    http://www.koivet.com/
    A good resource for articles.

    http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/ivcvm/1999/anders/index.php
    A site containing full details of the Erythrodermatitis caused by bacteria of the Aeromonas genus.

    http://www.mass.gov/czm/wpfshlth.htm
    One of the few sites very rich in details of fish diseases.

    http://www.glfc.org/pubs/SpecialPubs...pdf/chap24.pdf
    A site documented under the ownership of U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Services

    http://homepage.ntlworld.com/duncan....sh%20leech.htm
    An article with a very detailed explanation regarding the fish leech.

    http://www.koicarp.net/
    An excellent website containing mostly information and guidelines for pond care.

    http://www.aquaworldnet.com/awmag/diseases.htm#ittiospo
    An article containing several databases of various freshwater and saltwater diseases. It, however, lacks sufficient information on treatments against diseases.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/
    An ultimate website encyclopedia containing almost everything you need to know.

    http://www.ices.dk/products/fiche/Di...%20no%2053.pdf
    A website run by Adobe Reader containing details of a few more unfamiliar diseases.

    http://inkmkr.com/Fish/CamallanusTre...sTreatment.pdf
    A website containing excellent information regarding the camallanus worms and their prevention and treatment.

    http://www.skepticalaquarist.com/
    A good website with very detailed explanations in regard to the diseases circulating the home aquaria.
    Last edited by Lupin; 03-24-2010 at 8:15 PM.
    Hakuna Matata! What a wonderful phrase!
    Storm clouds may gather,
    And stars may collide,
    But I will love you until the end of time!



  8. #48
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    Tumor
    Symptoms:
    Fish with tumor will usually remain unfazed unless the tumor itself begins to hinder its normal body functions. Tumor can come as barely noticeable bumps, black growths or even open bump that may look ulcerated.

    Causes:
    Please note this excerpt from the main scientific study may not apply much to the aquarium or pond environment due to various factors that we have to differentiate from the natural body of water where this study was supposedly conducted however it gives us a general overview of how and why tumors exactly occur. The questions alone have baffled many aquarium enthusiasts especially those who keep goldfish, koi and hundred other cyprinids.

    Types of Tumors Suitable as Impairment Indicators

    A comprehensive review documented tumor epizootics from 41 different locations in North America (Harshbarger and Clark 1990). Additional analysis of this data indicated that 22 species of fish had populations with elevated tumor incidence associated with environmental contaminants, and that about two-thirds of these species were benthic or bottom-dwelling fishes (Baumann 1992a). A more recent review, specific to the Great Lakes, and dealing primarily with brown bullhead and white sucker, lists dozens of epizootics in both Canadian and U.S. waters (Baumann et al. 1996). Such tumors are generally categorized into three different groups by etiology: genetically induced, viral induced, and those caused by chemical carcinogens.

    Genetically Induced Tumors
    Some tumors have a genetic origin or etiology (Baumann 1992b). Hybrids fish species, such as platyfish/swordtail crosses, may be susceptible to tumors because of dilution of modifier genes (Anders 1967) or amplification of oncogene segments (Vielkind and Dippel 1984). Such fish exhibit a certain incidence of “spontaneous” cancers, but are also more susceptible to chemically induced cancers.

    Field studies indicate that hybrids between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in the Great Lakes develop gonadal tumors which appear to have a genetic basis (Harshbarger and Clark, 1990; Sonstegard 1977, Smith, 1998). Thus gonadal tumors in carp x goldfish hybrids are unsuitable for use in impairment assessments until a base incidence of “spontaneous” gonadal tumors can be determined.
    There has also been a suggestion that bullhead in Great Lakes tributaries are crosses between black and brown bullheads, and thus could be more susceptible to tumors. However, genetic studies to test this hypothesis have not been conducted. Ohio EPA studies have recorded zero brown bullhead/black bullhead hybrids in Lake Erie waters or tributaries. In fact very few black bullheads have been recorded. Furthermore the differing tumor prevalence in different tributaries, and in particular the vastly differing liver tumor frequencies seen over time in single locations such as the Black River, preclude genetics as a major factor influencing tumor development in brown bullhead (Baumann, 1998).

    Viral and Multifactorial Tumors
    Certain tumors in fish have a viral origin. The classic example is lymphoma in northern pike and muskellunge (Mulcahy and O’Leary 1979, Papas et al 1977, Sonstegard 1976). External tumors having a known viral etiology affect many species including: epidermal hyperplasia in walleye (Smith et al 1992, Martineau et al 1990, Yamamoto et al 1985) and papilloma on Atlantic salmon (Carlise and Roberts 1977), rainbow trout (Roberts and Bullock 1979), white suckers (Baumann et al 1996, Premdas and Metcalfe 1994, Smith et al 1989 a,b, Cairns and Fitzsimmons 1988, Smith and Zajdlik 1987, Sonstegard 1977) and brown bullheads (Smith et al 1989a, Baumann et al 1996).

    If external tumors are due to viruses alone, the tumor rate does not increase with age and these tumors can regress spontaneously (Premdas and Metcalfe 1994, Smith and Zajdlik 1987).

    Since external tumors in walleye are known to have a viral origin, and since there have been no studies indicating an increased incidence in polluted waters, walleye skin tumors can not be used as indicators of impairment.

    Recently scientists have succeeded in inducing lip papillomas in healthy white suckers by injecting cell-free filtrates from papilloma tissue of diseased white sucker (Premdas and Metcalfe 1994). Thus, at least some lip tumors present in white sucker have a clear cut viral etiology.

    However, in other situations, pinpointing the underlying cause of a tumor as strictly viral in wild fish is not always possible. For example, with a few exceptions, prevalences of lip tumors in white sucker and brown bullhead are elevated in populations from industrialized Great Lakes areas (Baumann et al 1996 and Premdas et al), pointing to a multifactorial (chemical and viral) etiology. It is postulated that exposure to chemicals increases the incidence of tumors caused by viruses through immune suppression or enhanced viral replication. Thus, in certain situations, the presence of virally induced tumors may be an indicator of exposure to adverse levels of
    chemicals in the aquatic environment.

    Freshwater drum from some areas in Lake Erie are known to have an increased prevalence of pigment cell tumors (chromatophoromas) (Harshbarger and Clark 1990; Baumann, Okihiro, and Kurey unpublished data). These tumors are found with increasing frequency as the length of the fish increases (Black 1983b). A lower frequency of such tumors exists in the Ohio River. At this time, no cause, either viral or carcinogen, can be assigned to these tumors. In Japanese waters (Kimura et al. 1984) similar tumors in related drum species have been correlated with chemical carcinogen exposure. However, without similar evidence for freshwater drum, such chromatophore tumors in this species cannot currently be used to assess impairment in single species studies. This species, along with all others found in the lake effect zones of Ohio tributaries and Ohio Lake Erie nearshore will be assessed as applicable in the DELTs index results (see section 6.6 and 6.7).

    Chemically Induced Tumors
    Tumors caused by chemical carcinogens most often affect the liver although lesions have been induced in the skin and numerous other tissues by laboratory exposure (Black, 1983; Hawkins et al. 1989). No liver tumors in any fish have ever been proven to be of viral origin. Nor are epizootics of cancer in non-hybrid, wild fish populations likely to have a purely genetic basis (Baumann 1992b). All thirteen species of benthic fish listed by Harshbarger and Clark (1990) as having had liver tumor epizootics have also had populations from unpolluted areas with documented tumor frequencies below one percent. Furthermore, in five carcinogen laboratory studies reviewed by Baumann (1992b), large numbers of control fish (of three different species) all had less than a one percent incidence of spontaneous liver tumors.

    Chemical induction of liver tumors in fish has been done experimentally with a variety of carcinogens via injection, waterborne exposure, and diet (Baumann 1992b). Both skin and liver tumors were induced in brown bullhead by exposure to extracts of sediment from the Buffalo and Black Rivers which contained carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (Black et al. 1983 and Black et al. 1985). Massive field studies have statistically correlated tumor frequencies in English sole with PAH in sediment in Puget Sound (Malins et al. 1984 and Myers et al. 1990). Similarly, a large number of field studies at freshwater locations have linked liver tumors in benthic fish with carcinogens, primarily PAH, in sediment (Vogelbein et al.1990, Baumann 1992a and Baumann et al. 1996). A number of laboratory experiments (Balch et al 1995, Hinton 1989, Metcalfe 1989, Metcalfe et al 1988, 1990, 1995, Hendrick 1985) clearly indicate that the chemicals have the potential to be direct acting carcinogens in fish.

    One long-term series of studies in the Black River, Ohio has demonstrated a decline in liver tumors in brown bullhead following a decline in PAH in the river sediment (Baumann and Harshbarger, 1995). After remedial dredging in 1990, buried PAH contaminated sediment wasre-exposed and liver tumor prevalence again increased dramatically (Baumann and Harshbarger 1998). Such fluctuations in an effect which tracks similar fluctuations in the purported cause is one of the strongest epizootiological arguments for a cause and effect relationship.

    The most recent literature review on Great Lakes tumor data states that there is sufficient data to warrant the conclusion that high tumor prevalences in suckers and bullheads from the Great Lakes are associated with exposure to chemical contaminants (Baumann et al. 1996). Suckers and bullheads are inshore species that do not migrate extensively. Therefore, the health of these species reflect the impacts of localized aquatic environment conditions on fish health.

    Conclusion
    In short, the causes of the tumor are by various reasons which we can diagnose if we look back to the history of the fish and the aquarium itself especially as there are indeed numerous products that are carcinogenic to all forms of life, not limited to just human beings. This in itself is rather complex as there are numerous variables that could possibly influence the health and welfare of the fish.

    Treatment:
    The treatment for tumors has been largely debated. Whether some incidents involved were simply ulcers mistaken for tumors, it remains baffling how tumors can be exactly treated however for those with tumors growing as bumps or lumps visible on the skin of the fish, a surgery may be conducted to remove the tumor if it is suspected to hinder the normal body functions of the fish. If the tumor is found in the gill area for instance, this is a rather critical case as the dramatic growth of the tumor could suffocate the fish to death if it hinders gill movements.

    For surgery details, click here.
    Goldfish Tumor Removal

    Just as a warning, you may need to ask for further queries before attempting this. Fish surgeries are by far one of the trickiest procedures. It is best advised not to perform such unless you are confident and careful you can do it otherwise leave this to the fish vets to deal with. Even vets that do not necessarily specialize in fish may lenda helping hand to you however you need to plan this carefully with the fish vet how the procedures should be done properly without killing the fish.

    Reference:
    www.epa.gov/glnpo/lakeerie/buia/lamp6.pdf
    Last edited by Lupin; 09-10-2009 at 2:33 AM.
    Hakuna Matata! What a wonderful phrase!
    Storm clouds may gather,
    And stars may collide,
    But I will love you until the end of time!



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